E/E Issues
4 Dimensions of Sustainability
1. Ecological
2. Economic
3. Social
4. Cultural
4 Kinds of Capital
1. Natural: Providing services to the production of our well being (fresh water)
2. Built
3. Social
4. Cultural
Neoclassical Model
Households provide factors of production to business that in turn, convert it to goods and services, which create households
(Fails to consider energy and waste)
Law of Thermodynamics
1st Law: Matter & energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only transformed
2nd Law: With use, energy becomes unavailable to us. It cannot be recycled
Natural Capital Services
1. Regulation of planetary gases, micro- and macro- climates, storms floods and droughts, purification and transport of water
2. Waste absorption & de-toxification
3. Matter and Energy
4. Erosion Control and Soil Maintenance
5. Creation of soil fertility
6. Nutrient cycling
7. Pollination services: Bees do the work
8. Biological control of natural populations
9. Genetic resources
10. Recreational, aesthetic, educational & spiritual services/values
Ecological Economics =
The Standard Model + Thermodynamics + Natural Capital
Supplementing GDP
Sustainable Development Indicators, Eco-Carbon Footprint
Adjusting GDP
Genuine Savings or Adjusted Net Savings, Green GDP
Replacing GDP
Happy Planet Index
Pareto Optimality
Goods and benefits are distributed in such a way that no one can be made better off in their own estimation. Satisfactions are not comparable between humans, everyone prefers to like what they prefer to like.
Wealth/Virtual Wealth/Debt
Wealth = Real physical things
Virtual Wealth = Money
Debt = A claim on future production of wealth/increased share on the production of the economy.
Debt Impudiation
Inflation, default on bonds, stock market crash, loss of unrealized assts (paper losses), bankruptcy, foreclosure
EROI
Energy Return on Investment

Economic Model: Assess energy out per dollar in
Ecological Model: Assess energy out per unit of energy in

Oil Issues
New fields discover decreasing dependence on Middle East
Easiest oil has already been taken
Development and transport challenges
Gulf Oil Spill (Deepwater Horizon)
Public Opinion Support for offshore shaken Majority support nationally Coastal states still cautious Prognosis Moratorium lifted in 10/2011 At least 1/2 domestic oil from offshore by 2020 Now more closely regulated
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle
Coal converted into synthetic gas
Burned to burn turbine
Exhaust gases boil water to turn 2nd turbine
Increased efficiency but expensive to build
Carbon Tax
+We would reduce consumption of fossil fuels
+Slow global warming
+Raise revenue and reduce deficit

-Could hurt carbon-intensive industries
-Could impact carbon-intensive regions
-Could be regressive meaning that it would hit poor people harder than others
-Politically dangerous

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Efficiency in Households
+Household improvements
+Recycling
+Substantial energy savings

DO MORE: Weather-proofing, smart meters

Efficiency in Commercial Buildings
+Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
+Standards issued by the U.S. Green Building Council
+Changes in material, plumbing, landscaping

DO MORE: Renovating old buildings

Efficiency of Power Plants
-Conventional plants lost much waste to heat
+Cogeneration plants capture hear for more uses

DO MORE: Modernize the power grid

Renewable Sources
+More benign than fossil fuels
+Unlimited supply
+Costs declining over time
-Costs not competitive in the short-run yet
-Not completely benign
-Problems with storage and transmission
-Historically low political support
Iron Triangle
Congressional Committees
Nuclear Industry
Nuclear Regulatory Committee
Three Mile Island
Plant in Pennsylvania
Mechanical & Human Error

Public opinion on nuclear power shifts

Yucca Mountain
Nuclear Waste

On a fault line which is not the best decision to stick a depository where there is potential seismic activity

Chernobyl
Power plant in Ukraine
Safety systems shut off for tests
Nuclear power concerns reinforced
How to avoid consequences of Climate Change:
Adaptation: Decrease human vulnerability and increase human capacity to cope with or adapt to climate change Mitigation: Reducing the extent to which the undesirable environmental consequences occur especially by reducing human causes -CAFE standards -Increase efficiencies -RE portfolio standards -Lower consumption
Women’s Household Burdens
Spend a lot of time processing food, carrying wastes to use as fuel sources for long distances, women carry the water from longer distances and women kept at home to help their mothers with these tasks
Indoor Air Pollution
WHO says that this type of pollution contributes to the same amount of deaths that malaria and tuberculosis causes in children

Women more effected and have higher chance of acute repiratory

Climate Change Adaptation – Global
Adaptation funding or climate finance
Climate Change Adaptation – National

National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs)

Created 3-25 Projects/Country

;

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Climate Change Adaptation – Local
Community-based Adaptation: Differences between communities, households & individuals

Gender Dimensions:
-Women are more vulnerable:
.Physical Ability
.Access to resources
.Gender roles
.Social networks
.Participation in decision making

Acting in Time
Refers to the US energy policy and states that we do just enough to satisfy short-term political goals but not enough to actually solve problems
Carbon Lock-In
The interlocking technological, institutional and social forces that can create policy inertia towards the mitigation of global climate change
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
Allows economies to use their CO2 waste from coal without releasing it into the atmosphere
ERD&D
Energy Research, Development, & Demonstration

Investments are = 25 years ago

Energy Technology Innovation (ETI)
The set of processes leading to new or improved energy technologies that can augment energy resources, enhance the quality of energy services, and reduce the economic, environmental, or political costs associated with energy supply and use.
Energy Technology Innovation (ETI)
The set of processes leading to new or improved energy technologies that can augment energy resources, enhance the quality of energy services, and reduce the economic, environmental, or political costs associated with energy supply and use.
Technology-Push Policies
Those that fund ERD&D activities and encourage an increased participation of the private sector along with increased international cooperation. As well as a devotion to the increased quality and quantity of the ETI workforce.
Market-Pull Policies
Policies that encourage the early deployment and widespread diffusion of new energy technologies through direct expenditures, tax related expenditures, or financial support.
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