Underlying Issues/Positions happen because of 3 interdependent needs
1. procedural: people want to be treated fairly 2. psychological: everyone needs to feel they were listened to and their ideas were respected in negotiation.
3. substantive: every party wants to get something (fair treatment, money, resources)
Preventing unnecessary conflict (2-ways)
Attitude: critical factor in determining whether a relationship will flourish or go sour. via –willingness: put forth effort -openness: be open to others pov -respect: respect others –humility:don’t be so defensive -mutuality: treat others are colleagues
Communication Skills: receiving + sending messages
What method is used for dealing with angry people?
Mutual gains approach: acknowledge the concerns of the other side, encourage joint fact finding, act in a trustworthy fashion, accept responsibility, admit mistakes, share power, focus on maintaining long-term relationships.
What is conflict?
def: disagreement between 2 or more parties (directly involved) who perceive a threat to their
and are engaged in a conscious struggle with each other.
Types of Conflicts and what are they
1. interest based: has to do with people’s needs and goal’s and what’s important to hem
2. structural: unequal access to resources, unequal power/authority, role definitions, time constraints, geographic relationships. disagreements over accountability/authority.
3. data: problems related to info, lack of access, mis-information perceived.
4. relationship: problems with parts of a relationship on one side, power imbalance, lack of trust, divergent priorities/expectations
5. values: has to do with fundamental beliefs. religion, ideology, etc. when 2 people’s values clash=conflict.
What is Environmental Conflict?
Def: At least 2 sides (human) actively engaged in a conscious struggle (w/ each other) PLUS 1 or more of the following:
a. conflict waged over a natural resource (b/c it’s scarce) b. conflicts when human activity (past, present, future) is believed by @ least 1 side to negatively affect a NR and thus affect human health/well-being.
c. conflicts when standards & regulations imposed on human activity in order to protect NR
Sources of Environmental Conflicts (4)
1. Limits to NR’s: tragedy of the commons 2. Different lvl’s of knowledge of env. issues and our dependence on NR’s and the environment. 3. Different values (global warming skeptics) 4. Uncertainty of different env. actions ; different assessment of risks associated with those actions. (ex: risk of unknow technologies or long term consequences)
Validation (and 3 ways)
def: acknowledging the other sides feelings, perspectives, truths and helping them feel understood. -repetition helps with this-
1. paraphrasing: restating in your own words what speaker said, reflecting saying back the emotional aspect of what was said, ~match their emotion 2. agreement stating: only if you agree, state your agreement with the speaker.
3. summarizing: restatinglarge blocks of what speaker said in your own words.
Non-Verbal Components of Communication + Posture
7% meaning comes from content 55% comes from non-verbal communication
Posture: -Lean in/neutral/straight=interested
-Lean back = dominant or disinterested -Turn body towards = open + confident -Quarter turn/crossing arms = disinterest/aggression (reduces ability to listen) -Eye contact: 60-70% shoudl be given -Nodding = endorphin like chems = feel better, friendlier toward person -Mirroring (tracking):subtly mimic others tone, choice of words, makes bonds.
Goal of “I-statements”
communicate clearly ; concisely your perceptions and feelings about a problem w/o eliciting a defensive response from the other side.
-what your interests are, keep comments focused on your own experience, use neutral language.
def: an individual or group with an investment the way the dispute ends and in the distribution of gains/losses that result from the resolution.
def: a matter or question in dispute. Topic or statement of a problem that results from perceived or actual incompatible interests.
def: the stand taken on an issue and a statement by a party as to how an issue can be resolved
def: a specific need or concern that must be addressed for an agreement to be satisfactory. (the reasons why people have positions on thigns)
Federal Laws (4)
Administrative Procedures Act APA (1946): shows the fed. agencies creation/changing of regulations.
1 provide notice they’re considering a rule 2 publish proposed rule 3 allow public participation 4 agency respond to public comments 5 adopt final rule
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 1970: requires all fed. agencies to: -asses env. impacts of all fed. major projects -consider the env. impacts in making decisions -disclose env. impacts to public +EIS: env. impact statement: -needs an env. impact of proposed action -any unavoidable neg. env. impacts -provide alt’s to proposed actions -mitigation measures (ways to lessen impact)
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) 1966: law that allows citizens right to access information from the fed. gov. Administrative Procedure Act (APA): law that shows internal procedures of administrative agencies + how they interact with the public, police improper agency behavior, and protect public safety.
California Public Records Act 1968: public access to information in possession of public agencies. Brown Act: law that says meetings of public bodies must be “open and public”, actions cant be secret,action taken in violation of open meetings laws may be voided ;post notice and agendy, notify media, allow recording, allow public.
How to plan a public hearing
1. ID the purpose: public comment? research? trying to reach an agreement between the parties? 2. advertise meeting 3. ID anticipated q’s/issues + answers
4. prepare fact sheets, executive summaries, layman’s language no jargon
5. consider location + timing of meeting 6. come with open mind + listen
7. be respectful 8. don’t talk down to people and don’t use jargon w/o explaining
9. establish procedures to follow up with concrete action to address community’s concerns after the meeting.
Meetings of Legislative Bodies
def:anything w/ state/city/country governing body + standing committees (mems of pub+gov body), city council, community service etc. purpose: 4 elected officials to make decisions.
1. Call to order: people’s role call, flag solute, public comment period. 2. Consent Calendar/Administration Agenda: list of all items to be decided on that chair/staff don’t think will be controversial & reccommended to be bundled together in one vote. purpose: save time, lump in one. 3. Public hearings: item a,b,c: if no one wants to talk about it – goes back to CC even if not originallly, already approved. 4. Oral & Written communication: Public comment period on non-agenda items 5. Continued & New Buisness: item x,y,z. things brought up in a pervious meeting or new topic.
6. Staff/Commitee Reports: lengthy reports 7. Adjournment: end meeting. say when next one is
Other Government Meetings w/ Public Involvement
Informational meetings: educational forums, less formal, can ask questions, plan for action information for things like zoning, caltrains etc.
Public Meetings: town hall meetings, scoping session PM held @ beginning of an idea and it’s issues+possible concerns about it. where public gives input. Task Forces/Advisory Groups: lawyers, doctors, etc. in order to shape decision with public, not just open ended, research provided.