En-Science
Properties of Science
a. Explaining what our world is like
b. Use Thought, observation, description, and creativity
c. Establish what is true from many choices
Good Science vs. Junk Science
a. Good Science: Acquisition and explanation of factual knowledge; NOT belief or opinion
i. Follows sound facts and inspected by hundreds of scientists
ii. Without bias, opinion, etc.
b. Junk Science: Selective results, political motivation, internet, distortions of scientific works
Theory
b. Theory: the over-riding explanation of a natural phenomenon
i. NEAR CERTAINTY
ii. based on rigorous testing with experimental evidence
iii. NOT BEST GUESS
Hypothesis
a testable idea
Scientific process steps
a. Develop Question
b. Form Hypothesis
c. Form predictions from hypothesis
d. Test through numerous experiments
e. Reject or fail to reject hypothesis (DO NOT “prove” or “disprove”)
f. Review by many qualified peers
g. Form theories
Is anything proved by science?
a. Nothing is ever considered to be “proved” through science. A good scientist tries to find something that rejects his/her hypothesis
Current Human population
a. 6,725,233,088
Kyoto protocal
a. Treaty to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (1997)
b. 166 nations were involved
c. US withdrew
i. Made a statement that the US isn’t ready for such a step
ii. The sacrifice is great as the US still produces an incredible amount of greenhouse gas
Four parts of a sustainable solution
a. Economically feasible
b. Socially fair/desirable
c. Ecologically viable
d. Politically Popular
Why arent religion and ethics part of science?
a. Although religion, ethics, and emotion are important, they cannot be observed objectively.
i. Cannot be fully proven, bias, etc.
Is there controversy in science? Where? What is it based on?
a. Not if a question has been answered consistently and repeatedly b. Exists when the following exist i. Complex phenomena/difficult to test (Ozon, greenhouse effect) ii. Bias (vested interest , deforestation effects) iii. Subjective values (value, judgments, nuclear power) iv. New Info (ozone, greenhouse effect
Prediction
beliefs about what will happen under certain conditions based on your hypothesis
Sustainability
interactions with the natural world to which we should be working; perpetuated indefinitely (doesn’t deplete resources needed to fuel the system)
Stewardship
An attitude of active care for natural lands; relationship with social justice
Control
the group of an experiment that is not exposed to the variable
Reasons to Care about environment
o Aesthetic reasons/rights of all
o Economic Reasons
o Ecological reasons
o Ethical reasons
Easter Island Lessons
o Deforestation due to the Moai, platforms, and canoes caused extinction (plant and animal), shifts in diet, battles over rescources, soil erosion, overpopulation, and starvation
Islam environmental approach
humans have responsibility of caring for God’s earthly creations; humans don’t own creation, Holistic
Buddhism approach
Compassion for living things, harm to one living thing in some way harms all living things.
Hinduism approach
Reincarnation, Karma (how you treat things will come back to treat you the same way), appreciation of all life
Christianity approach + specific responsibilty
All things glorify and represent God, humans have dominion not domination — o To care for God’s Earth, and respect his covenant with all living things, be stewards
Qualities that determine a biome terrestrially
Climate (rainfall, temp, etc) elevation
Qualities the determine a biome aquatically
Depth and amount of salt in water
How do we get different biomes in small areas
Terrain, amount of shade, wind, soil, draining of water
Effects of latitude and elevation of biomes
Latitude: Distance from equator affects temp.
–Elevation: a higher elevation has a lower temp.
Epipelagic Zone
1st zone, area of photosynthesis. Extends approx. 200 m below the surface
mesopelagic Zone
2nd zone, 200-1000 m. enough light for vision (constant twilight)
bathypleagic zone
3rd zone, 1000-4000 m. completely dark. Limited by food so vertical migration is common
abyssopelagic zone
4th zone, 4000+ m. completely dark. Limited by food so vertical migration is common
Edge + edge effect
Abrupt transition between 2 ecosystems, often human-induced; usually short term — the incredible difference between one ecosystem and the other. Causes: increased species richness, greater resources, unique conditions, predators/non-native species
Ecotone
smooth transitional region between ecosystems; permanent and natural; may include distinctive plant and animal species
Food web
very complex, single prey eaten by many predators and likewise
Food Chain
Single organism at each step; uncommon, only found in simple habitats.
Trophic levels
the levels of energy consumption–Producer, Primary Consumer, Secondary Consumer, Tertiary Consumer
Energy flow in an ecosystem
1-5% of energy is captured by autotrophs, energy to heterotrophs through consumption, Detritivore eats waste,
— Not energy cycle- energy is lost in conversion, heat, waste, reproductions
Photosynthesis equation
6CO2 + 12 H2O –> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6 H2O
respiration equation
C6H12O6 + 6O2 –> 6CO2 + 6 H2O
Symbiotic relationships
close relationship between 2 or more organisms; long term
Mutualism
both organisms benefit; Ants and Aphids
Commensalism
1 organism benefits, one isnt affected; Clown Fish and Sea anemones
Parasitism
1 organism benefits, 1 is affected negatively; tapeworms and host
hunter gatherer- neolithic revolution
12,000 years ago; domestication of animals and farming
Industrial revolution
-1700s; pollution and population growth; exploitation of natural materials
medical revolution
late 19th century; extraction of natural materials
Green and Environmental revolutions
Today; attempts to enact a more sustainable lifestyle; agricultural growth
Ecosystem
Organisms and the abiotic and biotic components with which they interact
Community
A group of different plant and animal species that live with each other within an ecosystem
Biotic
Something that is living or derived from living things
abiotic
things that are not living and are independent from living things
biome
A group of ecosystems that are catagorized by their similarities in climate and plant/animal species
estuary
the point where fresh water meets salt water
autotroph
organism makes its own food
heterotroph
organism consumes organic material as a supply of energy
frugivore
heterotrophs that consume fruit as their main source of energy
nectarivore
heterotrophs that consume nectar as their main source of energy
Granivore
heterotrophs that consume grain/seeds as their main source of energy
omnivore
heterotrophs that consume both plants and animals as their source of energy
herbivore
heterotrophs that consume plant material as their main source of energy
vermivore
heterotrophs that consume worms and the like as their main source of energy
haemivore
heterotrophs that consume blood as their main source of energy
carnivore
heterotrophs that consume meat as their main source of energy
piscivore
heterotrophs that consume fish as their main source of energy
detritivore
consume decomposing material as their main source of energy
detritus
decomposing organic material and waste
foraging guild
Group of heterotrophs that find food through common ways
mycorrhizae
fungi that grows in a symbiotic relationship with trees. grows on roots and allows for extra nutrients to be accumulated
What happens at each trophic level (10% rule) and what happens to most energy?
10% of energy is assimilated at each stage and the rest is lost through respiration, waste and other activities; very inefficient – results in “biomass pyramid”
Carbon Cycle
Photosynthesis and respiration cycle + aquatic/terrestrial cycle + human use cycle — Carbon lost through decomposition into fossil fuels over time; humans return carbon by burning fossil fuels (not inherently a bad thing, but bad because of the rate it is being done)
Nitrogen cycle
N gas -> fixing producers (legumes) -> cell respiration -> nitrogenous waste -> soil -> bacteria -> atmosphere OR  Gas -> industrial fixation -> fertilizer -> non-legume crops -> animals -> waste -> soil, bacteria, atmosphere
What happens to lost carbon?
Carbon lost through decomposition into fossil fuels over time
How do human-altered ecosystems differ from more natural ecosystems (cycling versus unidirectional flow)
A human-altered ecosystem eliminates the possibility of recycling, excessive use of fertilizers, production and use of nonbiodegradable compounds, and overcharge of nutrients in aquatic ecosystems
What is the importance of bacteria in the cycles?
Bacteria converts Nitrogen into ammonium which plants can use to build amino acids
nitrogen fixation
the process of chemically converting Nitrogen gas from the air into other compounds like nitrates (NO3) and ammonia (NH3)
denitrification
a process through which bacteria reduces oxidized nitrogen compounds in soil back to nitrogen gas in the atmosphere
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