ENTO 2010
Order Odonata
dragon flies and damselflies, 5000 species
odunus
means tooth
Characteristics of Odonata
incomplete metamorphosis: egg, nymph, adult
nymphs and adults are preditors
hunt prey by sight and use legs hairs to catch prey
mucles attached to wings like birds
males are territolrial
regultae temp with wings
Odonata Body
flattened body
two pairs of wings
biting moutparts
vary large eyes
small antennae
long abdomen
Odonata nymphs
aquatic
stage lasts 1 to 3 years
nymph to adult stage is very dangerous
wings must first be pumped with hemolymph
odonata beneficial?
yes, they feed on pest insect
dragonflies v. damselflies
damsels are smaller
damsel hold wings back at rest, dragons hold them out to the side
damsels lay eggs underwater on plant stems, dragons hold them out to side
how do odonata mate?
in the wheel position, male first removes rival males sperm, then make and female are in tandom
Order Blattodea
cockroach, 3500 species
blatta meaning…
cockroach
characterstics of blattodea
incomplete metamorphasis
nocternal omnivors
well adapted to living with humans
blattodea body
chewing mouth parts
2 pairs of wings
antennae find food and water, keeps them very clean
tail hairs senstitive to movement
are blattodea pests?
yes, considered domestic pests, but only 20 species of them
Ootheca
blattodea egg sack, hold forty eggs, nymphs break through by sucking air
blattodea reproduction
male stroke female antennae to identify sex and species
then offers her food as a gift
meet end to end
female mates once and stores sperm
can have up to seven broods
cockroach defense against “bait”
can smell bait at distence, touch with antennae
chew and taste bait, know its poison
Cockroaches spreading disease
in the form of bacteria machanically and causes allergies
_____ evolved from cockroaches
termites, some roaches eat wood like termitesand have protozoan (passed down to baby via feces) in their stummachs to digest cellulose
cockroach fossils are….
three hundred million years old
Order Orthopetra
grasshoppers, crickets, and locusts, 20,000 species
orthos meanings….
straight
ptera meaning
wings
characteristics of grasshoppers and crickets
incomplete metamorphasis
plant eaters
males produce sound
cricket and grasshoper body
chewing mouthparts
narrow front wings
strong hind legs for hoping
back wings are fan like
sound receptors on leg or abdomen
ovipositits its eggs….
in the soil or on a plant
cricket uses
in china they are raised to fight
sold as fish bait
genus: gryllus are crickets that are eatin
lubber grasshopper
brightly colored (aposematic)
noxious foam from mouth and thorax
locusts origins
blew or flew from africa
locust are the ________ pest in the world
number 1!
plagued us since biblical times
life cycle of locusts
nymphs stay in soil several years during drought untill enough ground moisture

each goes through two pharses of being solitary and then being gregarious (swarm)

what causes gregariousness in locust?
stimulation of hairs on their back legs of solitary locusts leads to swarming
how big can a swarm of locus be?
can cover 500 square miles and have 50 billion insects
swarms of locusts in africa
eat 2000 tons of food per day
travel 65 miles per day
predicting a locusts swarm
using wind and the sun
Cricket’s songs
each species has own song
more chirps per second mean higher temp
establish territory
call females
warns preditors
stridulation
the production of the sound to attract a mate
how is cricket sound produced?
crickets and some ghs rub wig against wing
gh’s and locusts rub wing against leg
wings and legs have bumps and ridges
wing can also amplify
when do crickets mate?
night because sound attracts predators
safer to be strong silent male who sits near another male while he calls
order Hemiptera
bugs, aphids, scales, cicadas, 68,000 species
hemi meaning…
half
ptera meaning…
wings
hemiptera characteristics
incomplete metamorphasis
peircing and sucking mouth parts
all are crop pests
transmit disease
bed bugs
feed at night
inject anestetic when they bite trhought skin
suck on human blood
“true bugs”
mouth parts, consisting of beak, swing forward
many are preditors
base of forewing is hardened, while back is membranous
many have stink glands
what is a vector
a biological transfer,
most hemiptera are vectors fro disease
Chaga’s Disease
vector: assassin bug, also know as kissing bug
tryponasoma cruzi

attacks heart slowly, no cure

how many die from chagas disease
one million per year
primarily in south america
how does some get chagas disease
infected kissing bug bites victum
bug then deficates on the victim
victim rubs wound, rubbing infected feces in wound
xenodiagnosis
used if victim has chagas
use of live vector to diagnose disease
take live unifected kissing bugs and let them bite victim, if the bugs contract disease then victim has disease
aphids
plant feeders, major agricultural pests, born alive
aphid body
membranous wings
beak swings down
soft bodied, thus many preditors
winged and wingless
plant defense: sticky hairs
wingless vs. winged aphids
if there is overpopulation they will grow wings and fly to new area
honeydew
sweet sticky subtance secreted by aphids

allows for water excretion
attracts ants which protect
causes fungal growth
equal to manna

order Coleoptera
weevils and beetles, 300,000 species (largest)
coleo meaning…
sheath
pteara meaning….
wings
coleoptera characteristics
complete metamorphasis
pests of crops and trees
dung is considered valuable food source
coleoptera body
chewing mouthparts
forewings are hardened, hind wings are membranous
thick exoskeleton
Elephant dung beetle
special mouthparts and rolls the dung into balls,
civet cats then eat beetles and produce civetone in the anal gland which is used in perfumes
Australia dung beetles
imported cows shat everywhere and none of the insect could handle it so grassland began to deteriorate
solution: import dung beetle
spanish fly
blister beetle
produces toxin cantharidin
cantharidin
hippocrates used as medicine
marquis de sade used as aphrodesiac: produces burning sensation in groin
destroys mucous linings in the body
whirligig beetle
scavengers
divided eyes so can see above and under water
spin in circles to create waves to detect food
carry air bubble to breathe underwater
fireflies
each species has unique flash
male flashes to attract female, female flashes in response
some females mimic other species to prey on males
how do fireflies produce light?
luciferin, pigment which yields light when combined with oxygen
order lepidoptera
butterflies, moths, 200,000 species
lepido meaning…
scale
lepidoptera characteristics
complete metamorphasis
larvvae feed on plants and spin silk
greatest color variation
marjor agricultural pests
lepidoptera bodies
siphoning mouth parts
wings have scales (modified hairs)
lepidoptera larvae
leaf eating machines
molt four or five times
soft cuticle
lepid larvae defense

camoulflage warning coloration toxic spines

catapillers

lepid adults
feed for flight fuel
mate abdomen to abdomen
females lay eggs on host plant
butterfly
greek: psyche
french: papillon

20,000 species

florida queen butterfly
looks similar to viceroy
finds mates with sex hormones
m and f perform courtship dance
males use “hair pecils” to dust female with pheromone
Monarchs
larvae feed on milkweed
sequester toxic alkaloid, cardenolides
preditors leave them alone
in danger due to habbitat loss
mexican holiday
came from monarch, return of monarch represents the return of souls of the people who died during the year

200 million migrate to mxico during winter

dan janzen
identifying all moths in costa rica
rear larvae to adults then identifies them
use light screen at night to collect adults
co-evolutionary arms race
plant produces toxin
insect adapt to toxin
plant responds by making a more powerful toxin
plant surface
surface is covered in hairs which are called trichomes
trichomes produce toxins
may be sticky causing the insect to stick to plant
may be spines or hooks
defense against herbavores
silicone oxide in leaves, like eating glass
proteinase inhibitors prevent from digesting food
secondary plant products which are toxic compounds
when a plant is wounded it may….
limit water loss
prevent fungal and bacterial infection
deter herbibory
when a plant is wounded it may…
wound-heal to give a scab
produce a toxic chemical
exude sap or gum
form a gall with the insect inside
jurrassic park
fossilized plant resin is amber which is gem
dna is found in the fossil insects
sequence fossil dna
determine relatedness of insects species
recover dino blood from female mesquito
carnivorous plants
generally occur in areas low in nutrients
digest the protein in their prey and have modifies structure to catch insects
sundews
bright colors attract insects
leaf tentacles have sticky glue
electrical signals cause leaf to curl
leaf uses enzymes to digest prey
venus fly trap
trigger hairs inside leaf
touching hairs causes electrical signals
two signals cause rapid growth of outer leaf cells
leaf closes on insects and they are digested
these are only native to south and north carolina
bladderworts
aquatic
have bladder with atrap door
when prey hit a trgger hair, it is sucked into bladder in one one thousandth of a second
pitcher plants
flower like; nectar and color attracts insects
inside: downward pointing hairs and loose wax
insects fall in pool and are digested
order Diptera
flies and misquitoes, 90,000 species
di meaning….
two
Diptera characteristics
complete metamophisis
primitave larvae are maggots
many larvae are aquatic
diptera are the most _______
most harmful order because many member cause disease
diptera bodies
peircing/sucking or sponging mouthparts
one pair of membranous wings: no hind wings
halteres stabilize and used instead
diptera bodies
peircing/sucking or sponging mouthparts
one pair of membranous wings: no hind wings
halteres stabilize and used instead
flies are the best ____
fliers of all the insects
hoverflies beat their wings _____
175 beats per second
halteres
wings that provide stability
House Fly
regurgitate food which enzymes soften
uses sponging mouthparts get nutrients from food
sees movement very well
use leg hairs to tastes
oily hairs allow for walking on ceiling
Flies transmit disease ______
mechanically: they pick up disease from one place and carry it to another
fly farms
maggots are used to eliminate animal farm waste as well as medical treatment
maggots are added to wounds to eat dead flesh, prevents amputation
African sleeping sickness
vector: tsetse fly
disease: protozoan, typansosoma
drug treatment effective
African sleeping sickness kills
65,000 people a year
kills people and cows
Female fly
does not lay eggs
egg hatches inside the female
female produces only eight larvae
life cycle of fly
egg hatches inside female
larvae develope inside
larvae is born then burries in soil
adult emerges from soil
mosquito life cycle
eggs laid in or near water
aquatic larvae and pupae
adults live one to three weeks
female mates in a male swarm
male feeds on flowers
female needs “blood meal”
mosquito characteristics
larvae have syphon tube for breathing
female is attracted to hosts carbon dioxide
sound of females wings attract mate
mosquito’s mouthparts
peircing and sucking
protective sheath surrounds parts
tube to suck the blood
knife like parts
saliva injector stops blood clotting
mosquitos eggs do not develope without _____
blood meal
insect disease
1/6 of humans have an insect vectored disease
Ronald Ross
showed that mosquiotos vector malaria in 1897
walter reed
showed that mosquitos vector yellow fever
yellow fever
vector: mosquitos
disease: virus
resevoir host: monkey
worst in south america and africa
no effective treatment
malaria
vector: mosquito, anopheles
disease: protozoan, plasmodian
south america, africa, and asiatreatment is effective
maleria kills ______
2 million people per yer
500 million new cases every year
malaria life cycle
mosquito finds infected host
plasmodian mates in stomach
then moves to salivary glands
mosquito finds new host
plasmodian moves to human liver
attacks red blood cells which rupture
cycle repeats every 24, 48, or 96 hours
maleria control
controlled in 1950’s with ddt
recent outbreaks due to ddt andf drug treatment resistence
natural selection in africa (maleria)
mutation changed structure of hemoglobin which provides resistence to maleria
with one copy of gene, they are carrier and resistant
if two gene copies, they have sickle cell anemia
order Siphonaptra
fleas,
siphon meaning…..
tube
aptera meaning….
wingless
siphon characteristics
complete metamophasis
good jumpers and runners
adults are blood sucking
many are disease vectors
siphonaptera bodies
peircing sucking mouthparts
no wings
narrow body
fleas can jump _____
200 times their own length
resilin
prtoein found on back of fleas legs, works like rubber band
miriam rothchild
world feal expert
discovered females react to sex hormones of pregent host
match reproductive cycle
lays eggs on babies of host
bubonic plague
vector: flea
disease: bacteria, yersinia pestis
antibiotic treatment is effective
75 percent death rate
russia, middle east, western usa, africa
bubbonic plague and rodents
bacteria enters flea with blood meal
multiply in flea gut and bock entry to it
seeks new host
feeds on new host
regurgitates blood with bacteria
host is now infected
elephantiasis
vector: mosquitos
disease organism: roundworms
causes swollen appendages
300 million in southeast asia have it
river blindness
vector: black flies
disease: roundworms
20 million infected
cause itchy loose skin
dradual loss of sight
no effective treatment
batesian mimicryu
resemblace of a edible species to an unpalatable species which serves as model to decieve preditor

monarch is toxic, viceroy is not
viceroy mimichs monarch and blue joy learns to avoid it

mullerian mimicry
natural resemblence of two or more unpalatable species to enhance preditor avoidence
ex) two butterflys are BOTH toxic
crypsis
resembence of organism to its back ground
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