ENV 203 Final 2014
Nature
Written by Emerson (1836) (Definitions), human construct, solitude can only be found in nature
Wilderness Act
1964 (Definitions), Defines wilderness, land untrammeled by man, undeveloped, primeval character, controls nature
“Forever Virgin: The American view of America”
Perrin (Definitions), Nature as a virgin woman, gendered, feminine, untouched, pure, non threatening, tamed, technological advancements
Is Nature Real
Snyder (Definitions), nature is not a social construct, it is real and we need first hand experience with it, it is vitally important
Cosmogonies of Iroquois, Cherokee, Sioux and Navaho
  • (Creation)
  • Iroquois: Earth Diver, Earth is on the back of the Turtle
  • Cherokee: Earth Diver, Water Beetle
  • Sioux: Man sprang from soil of Great plains
  • Navaho: Emergence, colors, gendered roles, four directions, ritual purification, animals as humans

Eden: Moral Power of a Biblical Landscape
(Creation) Hiebert, Judeo-Christian beginnings, (Genesis 1-Man has dominion over nature, was written by a Priest, human in God’s image), (Genesis 2-Written by a Yahwist, humans serve nature, humans are created from soil, arable land, topsoil) we have focused mainly on Gen 1 and man’s hold over nature.
Cosmology and Ethics
Rasmussen (Creation), religious beliefs that we are outside of nature is the root cause of all environmental issues, religion is also the cure if we hold ourselves accountable to the other people in our religion
Deep Ecology: A new Paradigm
Capra (Creation), humans are equal to nature-not separate, intrinsic value, all beings are interconnected, shallow ecology cannot deal with today’s issues.
The Deep Ecological Movement: Some Philosophical Aspects
Naess (Creation), coined shallow ecology, anthropocentric, instraumental value, efficient growth, tech as fix, functionalism
Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation: A Third World Critique
Guha (Creation), deep ecology is not universal-limited, doesn’t address the poor, DE=Hegemonic+imperialist+ hierarchical, Unequal distribution of resources and consumption, misappropriates culture
Introduction to White Noise
Osteen (Proliferation), White Noise as a social commentary, it brings up the use of resources and about Death
An Ecocritical Approach to White Noise
Mackenzie (Proliferation), how a modern family views the environment and nature
Think Little
Berry (Proliferation), small things will eventually add up to big change, everyone needs to do their part, lobby for government changes when you can
Faustian Economics: Hell Hath No Limits
Berry (Proliferation), limits must be placed on humans, must be extreme, things are worse than when he wrote “Think Little”, giant corporations are essentially evil, we cannot cure what technology has done by more technology
Definitions of Anthropocentrism
Human centered, man above nature, man separate from nature, man is different than the rest of the world
Forget Shorter Showers
Jensen (individuation), root cause of environmental issues is industry, personal actions really have no effect must change American way of life, focus big picture and how to change it on a fundamental level
All Our Relations
LaDuke (Individuation)
A Short History of Environmental Apocalypse
Buell (Destruction), Hiroshima and Cold War, Catastrophe vs. Judgment: Not Judgment because it is our own doing, Scientific solutions are not enough, we must look to social science and Env humanities as well, HIV/AIDS is an environmental Crisis, culture is inseparable from environment
Beyond Humanity’s End: An Exploration of a Dramatic Versus a Narrative Rhetoric and its Ethical Implications

Deanne-Drummond (Destruction)

Drama: Dynamic, individual connection, positive, action, engaging, audience participation, imagination, agency, collective communal, mitigation

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Narrative: Static, pessimistic, resignation, implies fate/determined outcome, stories, power of Narroator, adaption

Gaia Hypothesis: Earth finds a way to reach a balance

Ecofeminism

Plant (Destruction),

Ecology is study of our relationship to an ecosystem on earth, everything is related

Ecofeminism; Women=Nature- Degrading, dismissive, marginalizing : Man:Culture, Positive, affirmative, centralizing, accepting, oppressive : origin comes from reproduction, nurturing, sustaining, focus on body : all things, men and women are equal, we need nature as much as we need culture

Women and Nature
Merchant (Destruction), women and nature are related because both have been oppresed by men, both are life sustaining, both are incredibly important, biology is not destiny
Woman Against Wasting the World: Notes on Eschatology and Ecology
Keller (Destruction), destruction of status quo, degendering of God, community and relatedness, Earth as a woman, wasting and ravaging the female Earth
From Woodcraft to ‘Leave no Trace’
Turner (Recreation), advancement of consumerism, used to be to prove manlieness, now to reconnect with nature, while we leave no trace out in the wilderness, we leave lots of trace elsewhere.
Postindustrial Park or Borgeois Playground?
Heyman (Recreation), Seattles Gas Works Park, site specificity, relation to larger issues in the community,
The Meaning of the Sabbath
Wirzba (Recreation), Sabbath is super important, it keeps us rooted to nature and to God
Wilderness as Sabbath for the Land
Sanders (Recreation), leave wilderness untouched by leaving the 7th Day untouched, wilderness and nature are deeply intertwined with Sabbath
This Day: An Introduction
Berry (Recreation)
The Trouble with Wilderness
Cronon (Definition), the idea of wilderness furthers the duality, moral obligation to save them, pluralism
Reinventing Eden
Merchant in Cronon (Creation), Eden was perfect, have to work to get back to it, American Frontier was finding Eden, must find new visions of Eden now that the frontier is gone
Whose Nature?

Proctor in Cronon (Proliferation)

Ethical dimensions of environmental debates, subjectivity, moral obligations, wise use movement

Toward a Philosophy of Nature
Harrison in Cronon (Individuation)
On the Search for a Root Cause
Ellis in Cronon (Individuation), we get too caught up in searching for one root cause, that nothing ever gets done, there are so many causes that we need to work to fix one at a time as opposed to looking for a one fix fixes all
Nature as a Community
Dichiro in Cronon (Individuation), environmental justice, Environment is where you live, work, play and worship, Grassroots activism, people as part of environment
Simulated Nature and Natural Simulation

Hayles in Cronon (Recreation)

Simulated nature is VR, Natural Simulation is Yosemite,

Are you an Environmentalist or Do You Work for a Living?

White in Cronon (Recreation)

The idea that environmentalism is just for the rich or people who don’t actually do work

American Progress
Gast 1872
Westward the Course of Empire
Leutze 1862
Valley of the Yosemite
Bierstadt 1868
The Airborne Toxic Event
Delillo
Ishmael
Quinn
A Friend of the Earth

Boyle

Main characters: Ty Tierwater, Andrea Tierwater, Maclovio Pulchris, Teo, Chuy, Sierra

Sabbath Poems
Berry
Neukom Vivarium
Dion 2007, a tree decays under a bunch of sprinklers in a room, technology keeps it alive
Site Specificity
Artwork that is created to be in a certain place
A Line and Tracks in Bolivia
Long 1981, Long walked across lava every day for 11 days to show his imprint on the environment
Earthworks
Art by using the Earth in a way that has deeper meaning
Shift
Serra 1970, a wall in the field that shows the eyelevel of two people, breaks the idea of a single centered way of looking at art
Ghost Nets
Rahmani 1991, the restoration of a half of a wetland habitat, visual narrative
Coyote, I Like America and America Likes me
Beuys 1974, in a cage with a coyote for 7 days to learn how to live with nature
A Gathering of Waters: Rio Grande, Source to Sea
Irland 1995-2000, water was captured at a bunch of sites and then sent down the river
Speaking to Their Mother
Belmore 1992, invited leaders, writers and speakers to speak to the land through a giant speaker
Condensation Box
Haacke 1965, the process of condensation was shown and people could interact with it
Reading Position for Second Degree Burn
Oppenheim 1970, he recieved energy to his body as opposed to expending it like most artists
Spiral Jetty
Smithson 1970, a huge spiral was built into Utah’s Great Salt Lake, represented entropy, no center, dissolves over time
“Roden Crater” and “Skyspaces”
Turrell 1979, turned an inactive volcanoe into an oberservatory of sorts, smoothed it out. Skyspaces are viewing chambers that are open to the sky 2003.
“Shelter for the Forest Deer” and “Wave Chamber”
Drury 1987;1996, Shelter is a little hut in the woods that causes you to be introspective.
Camera Obscura
A type of photographical device that reflects the surrounding area upside down, Drury uses them
“The Mediated Motion” and “Your Spiral View”
Eliasson 2001;2002. Mediated motion leads the viewer through rooms that represent the elements. Spiral View is a tunnel with mirrors that make it appear as if though you are spiraling.
Silueta Series
Mendieta 1973-1980, would mold her body into the ground, eventually would wear away, temporal nature
River Taw
Derges 1998, took cool pictures of the river and developed them at the river
Photograms
A technical device that produces images without an optical apparatus
“Prima Lingua” and “The Gift of Water”
Brookner 1996 and 2001, Prima Lingua is a water filtration system that is biologically based. Hands giving water.
“Water Mirror”, “Big Hands Conference” and “Future Compass”
Ikeda 1998, 2000 and 2005. Brought water from the Hudson to a space. Focused on water shortage and pollution. Water shortage in the future
“River Books” and “Ice Book”
Irland 1989, preserved books she found with wire and beeswax
Greenhouse Britain
Harrison and Harrison 1970s, New forms of ecologically friendly human habitation, goes up instead of out.
Topics for the Semester
  • Definition: Nature, Wilderness, Environment
  • Creation: Cosmogonies, Cosmologies–> Judeo Christian and Native American
  • Proliferation: Ishmael, “Airborne Toxic Event”- How toxins and pollution Proliferates, overconsumption
  • Individuation: Power of the individual, anthropocentric, individualism
  • Destruction: Human caused apocalypses, Catastrophe vs. Judgment, Scientific Solutions are not enough
  • Recreation: Use of environment

Individuation
Indiviudal nature, power of individual, selfishness, anthropocentrism, groupings
Proliferation
Expanding nature of humanity, toxins and pollution
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