Env. Policy
Two primary issues with water
Availability, & Quality
Global issues concerning water
scarcity, & pollution
Reasons for freshwater shortage
consumption, technology, agriculture, natural causes
A.C.E (1802)
Army Corps of Engineers. Construction arm of the federal gov. Authority over navigable waters. Issues permits for projects that impact our waterways through CWA.
Bureau of Reclamation (1902)
W. expansio (17 states) Hydoelectricity generation through water development projects (dams)

Status Quo 

% of our water ot clean enough for swimming/ fishing

Streams 40%

Lakes 45%

Estuaries 50%

Pre 1948 Water pollution
Waterways were natures sewers. Direct dumping into the waterways.
Surface/groundwater water pollution
landfills, biocides(ag. and lawn), underground storage tanks(oil barrels fromgas stations), leakage of hazardous waste, waste disposal wells
Water contaminants
organisms, suspended and dissolved solids, nutrients, metals and toxins, muicipal wastewater discharge
1970’s Shift in water management
Rachel Carsons book in the 60’s, earth day
Everglades restoration funding
Shared funding between the federal government and state gov.
Everglades destruction

  • ACE brought invasive melaleuca trees from Australia to drain the everglades
  • Drained for agriculture and development

C.E.R.P

Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan

  • 20-30 year project for fed and state gov to split the est. 7.5B-8.7B cost of everglades restoration
  • World’s largest ecosystem restoration project
  • Restore sheet flow to the remaining everglades land

Refuse Act 

(1899)

Prohibited dumping of solid waste into commercial waterways

Water pollution control act

(1948)

  • Establishes fed gov role in regulating interstate water pollution
  • Law requires studies, research, and limited funding for sewage treatment
  • Surgeon general prepares or adopts programs for eliminating or reducing pollutioni 
  • 1956 amendments not good enough creating 1965 WQA

The first organization to draw awareness to nations water problem

Izaak Walton League

  • 1920’s published findings that 85% our nations water was polluted and 30% of cities treated their waste before dumping

W.Q.A

Water Quality Act

(1965)

  • Streamlined fed gov WPCA abilities to enforce, regulate, and fund point and non point source pollution
  • Chesapeake Bay Program
  • Great Lakes program
  • requires states develop strategies for toxic cleanup and report harmful effects done to water 
  • increases penalties for permit violations
  • EPA studies dams 
  • Nomination of estuaries under national significance

C.W.A

Clean Water Act

(1972)

 

 
  • National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system (NPEDS) gave EPA ability to issue permits for discharge
  • ACE issues permits for discharge of dredged or fill material into navigable water 

EPA(6) deadlines for water-pollution permits

  1. wastewater effluent guidelines
  2. sources install water pollution control tech
  3. eliminates discharge into waterways 

CWA

(1977)

  • developed Best management practices BMP 
  • authorizes funds to complete the Ntl. wetlands inventory
  • ACE issues permits for activities causing minimal env. effects
  • reg responsibility to states

Safe Drinking water act

1974 & 1996

1974

  • gave EPA power to identify contaminants, set maximum contaminant levels

1996

  • gives more discretion to the states cost/benefit analysis
  • water reports with water contaminants
  • covers toxic contaminants, protection of groundwater aquifers, regulation of 83 specific contaminants

Flint water crisis

  • Town switched water source to save $5M 

Flint river->lake huron->flint river

lake huron has different makeup of the water and exposed the lead piping making people sick

  • 10M homes and buildings across the country still have lead/partially leaded pipes

 

Conventional pollutants (NAAQS)
carbon monoxide, nitrogen, ozone, sulfur oxides, PM, lead
4 oxy compound pollutants
carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen
2 toxic pollutants
lead, PM
3 Sources of pollution
point sounrce, non point source, mobile source
point source
factory with a smoke stack
non-point source
cattle, landfills
mobile source
car,train,boat,plane
hardest to regulate
air toxics
cancerous toxins by automobiles and industry
ex. benzene from automobiles
acid rain
secondary source pollutant (coal) sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, VOC’s
US vs Canada acid rain
Us contributes to 50% Canada’s acid rain
Canada contributes to 20% U.S acid rain
Health and env. impacts of air pollution
increased morbidity and mortality
reduction in lung function
decreased crop production
artifact weathering and destruction
London, England 1952
over 4k people die because of air pollution sets into motion english government air stds
1948 Donora, PA
sulfur from steel manufacturers causes 5 day episode where 1000’s become ill and 20 die
Clean Air Act
CAA 1963, 1970, 1990, 1992
1963 expanded research and tech. asst. programs to states. Fed. GOV. investigative and abatement auth. Motor vehicle emissions (control tech)
1970-states make emission reduction plans SIP’s
1990- larget, mort comprehensive/expensive legislature
1992- G.W freezes implementation to be in effect 2005
Prevention of significant deterioration (PSD)
required businesses to install the best available control tech (BACT)
New Source Reduction (NSR)
requires companies to obtain permits before modifying equipment
ozone
component of NO2 on hydrocarbons. respiratory problems.
PM
combustion from industry, forest fires, windblown dust, vehicles 2.5 micrometers
World species
30 M species, named and identified 5%
ESA
Mostly fish
includes plants
rate of extinction 1,000 a year
Threat to endangered species
natural causes
human actions (habitat destruction, hunting, pesticide, pollution,invasive species)
Tropical hotspots
Hawaii accounts for 30% of extinctions and 50% possible extinctions
Good extinction
viruses or diseases extinct because of vaccinations
History of wildlife ownership
English model- royal forests and only royals could hunt
U.S said no one owned wildlife until supreme court ruling in 1800’s giving authority to teh states
ESA
1966, 1969, 1973
1966- protected habitat
1969-laws against illegal trade (rhino)
1973- most comprehensive
Who decides who get listed on the ESA
secretay of Interior and commerce have sole authority over who gets listed, based on petitions and interest groups to be presented with scientific evidence
Who decides habitat and recovery plan of ESA
Federal government
Why does public lack apathy for ESA
no clear opponent(self) don’t know how it effects them, lack of cohesive action by environmental groups
Impacts of tech on sustainability
green revolution found a way to feed the growing population
US agency for international development
large scale family planning efforts in the 60’s and 70’s
UN family planning program
US support varies and is largely criticized
Mexico city plan
swaps between republicans and dems about abortion and family planning contribution
demographic transition theory
3 stages of human population increase
phase 1 human demands remain within limits that can be sustained by the env.
phase 2 human demands begin to exceed a sustainable limit and continue to grow
phase 3 ecosystem is unable to sustain population
Chesapeake Bay dead zones
accounts for 40% of the bay.
worst in the summer.
too much fertilizer being soaked into the ground gets into the water and creates no oxygen for the fish to breathe
BNR bacteria
bacteria eats sewage to clean it
Endocrine distributors
found in male feminizing fish and also in fish abnormalities
Amt. of money USF has received from investing in fossil fuels
$417M
Pruitt’s political philosophy of how the EPA should operate
States need more power and fed. gov should not use over reaching power
VW cheats turned off at
2,100 ft German road test track
Incineration _______________ production of waste
supports
Natural gas from the sable pipeline can be sold abroad? T/F
True
Due to the bill NC passed on coastal building only what kind of information can be taken into account?
linear data
How cuts by the EPA to grants effects the states ability to maintain public safety?
They can’t administer their safe drinking water standards
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