Env S 3 UCSB
NEW SPAIN- encomienda system
– System of slave labor and tribute. Group of people (sometimes whole villages) become property of encomienda owner
? Tribute
– Encomienda people worship their owner through labor e.g. mining, food production, house servant
? Protection
– Encomienda ppl received protection from their owner
? Mission system
– Replaced the encomienda system
? Proselytizing
trying to convert peopple to christianity to save their souls

tried to convert all of new spain to christianity

first mission dates back to the 1950s

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jesuits, dominicans, franciscans
priests who worked on missions to spread word of god and convert ppl to christianity
california
• California—final area that was colonized; Spain thought they would lose California so they established the Missions in California
o Missions brought East-West transference
? Sacred Expedition
– The Spanish King sought to convert natives to Roman Catholicism in order to create a “new Spain.” Sacred expedition was the formation of the 21 missions.
ENGLISH COLONIES – mercantilism
• Mercantilism based on the idea that producing things in colonies and bringing them back for the lead countries profit and selling them back to the colonies
Roanoke
• Roanoke—everyone on the island died—believed that they either died of disease of were attacked by mainland natives
Navidad
• Navidad—established next to an island of cannibals and everyone was killed
Jamestown, Virginia
– Established 1607
– Nearly failed, struggled to adapt to climate
– Needed ships to come in to resupply
starving time
– Reduced to eatings rats, in 1610 it was resupplied
– Gave English tobacco
pilgrims
– New England
– Religious dissenters from English church
– Established colony in 1620, landed in Cape Cod
– In 10 years, had been replaced by Puritans
– In 1630 they brought 1,000 people to find Boston and establish their own church
– John Winthrope: “establish a city on a hill.”
puritans
1000 people came to escape Anglican Church
o Wanted to establish a city on a hill to show people how to live right with God
• More interested in showing Europe how to live right with God than converting natives to their religion
o Saw native Americans as being in the way—not subjects of king and queen
o English were coming to stay, not to colonize necessarily
• Puritans tried to control everything in New England
city on a hill
• Puritans—1000 people came to escape Anglican Church
o Wanted to establish a city on a hill to show people how to live right with God

BOSTON

new england
• Puritans tried to control everything in New England
• Middle Atlantic colonies—people left New England because they didn’t like the Puritans—worked with Dutch who were already there to establish other areas—colonies more entrepreneurial and economical than New England colonies
middle atlantic colonies
• Middle Atlantic colonies—people left New England because they didn’t like the Puritans—worked with Dutch who were already there to establish other areas—colonies more entrepreneurial and economical than New England colonies
o New York City and Philadelphia had more money than Boston and other big New England colonies
new york city
o New York City and Philadelphia had more money than Boston and other big New England colonies
philadelphia
– By 1700, one of the metropolitan cities
southern colonies
– From the 1600s to the late 1700s, tobacco was king
– Wealthy Englishman set up plantations in the southern colonies where they grew mostly tobacco

Tobacco was king—wealthy planters migrated from England and opened plantations—areas of land with workers and crops
o First used indentured servants—signed work contracts to work for planters
o Slaves were later used because indentured servants rebelled
o Slaves were 22% of the population in American South

indentured servants
– Large need for labor. The natives had either died off or migrated
– Poor English got passage to America and provisions in exchange for 7 years of work
– Many of these poor English realized the opportunity outside of the plantations and ran away
african slave trade
– 1619, slave trade begins. First African brought to Virginia

o Slaves were later used because indentured servants rebelled
o Slaves were 22% of the population in American South

• Cash crop farming
tobacco, rice, indigo, and cotton planted in large scales to make money
o These crops were very invasive and degraded the soil if they weren’t rotated
THE BRITISH ISLES
– Demonstrate the East-West transference of Roman-Greco culture which is still influential today
– 43 A.D. Romans arrive at British Isles
? Celts, Druids
Celtic people were there; migrated from central Europe before the Romans got there
-hadn’t been in England that long
-Celts: Germanic people, had weapons, horses, very warlike
-priests of chief level society of Celts were called Druids
-Celts worked pretty well with Romans; Druid priests worked well with Roman governmental structure
-organized England into trading center
-example: London is an old successful trading center
Hadrian’s Wall
Romans built Hadrian’s Wall (74 mile wall) that separates Scotland from England; kept invaders out from north
-130 AD
Angles and Saxons
came from northern Europe; migrated to England after Rome fell in 400 AD
-established small farms and manors in rural countryside
-England was a bountiful land – good crops, mild climate, etc.
-most people co-existed fairly peacefully
-Christianity came next to British Isles and successfully converted people
-very prosperous land during Middle Ages
-always had 19 miles of water between it and the continent (helped prevent many continental wars)
-big factor in English prosperity
norman conquest
Norman’s came in 1000 AD (led by Duke William)
-from northern France
-came across channel to England and engaged the Anglo-Saxons (under King Harold) in Battle of Hastings
-Norman Conquest = Battle of Hastings; 1066 AD
-in 20 years after Battle of Hastings, there was a lot of chaos and resistance
William the Conqueror
(King William) proclaimed himself king
-assessed the value of his holdings in England by sending out scribes to value holdings
-then taxed people of the state – legitimized his control of England
-result of this assessment was called the Domesday Book (census)
Domesday Book
census)
-best census that was done until 19th century
-puts England way ahead of objectifying and quantifying everything in its country (environmental manipulation)
-established the government that everyone observed
magna carta
-in 1216 the non-royals reacted to William with the Magna Carta
-said the king did not have absolute power and there would be people who would be appointed or elected to positions that would challenge the king
-out of this came Parliament
-first to have a pro-business, pro-capitalist economy
-allowed them to enter into Industrial Revolution
-country that first embraced capitalism was England
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
the revolution was revolutionary (happened really fast and suddenly)
-now people are saying that it was a long period of time, and therefore not an actual revolution
-British had advantage of immigration and the 19 miles of water
-promoted maritime activity (way ahead in sailing)
-triangular trade – between England and North America
enlightenment
movement of the educated classes that believed that humans are rational creatures that can do significant things
-use science and apply knowledge to solve problems
-generated wealth and business activity
mercantalism
idea of limited trade between England and its colonies
-around 1600’s
-evolving into modern capitalism
capitalism
most of the means of production and distribution are privately owned
-state doesn’t have a big control over economy
-operated for profit
-around 1700 in England
mass production/mass consumption
-1700s: manufacturing class/capitalists began to mass produce goods from raw materials
-led to mass consumption
-needs lots of labor; hired lots of workers
-factories first used water power and then steam power
-British textiles – first mass produced and mass consumed good
-small farms closed and big farms formed
-farmers turned into wage earners
-money they earned fueled the Industrial Revolution because they now had to buy goods they used to make on their farms
applied technology
– Burning wood or coil, resulted in a large environmental impact
– British has a huge textile business
– Workers leave farms for the cities to work in factories, become wage earners
– 1800s, Britain was the most powerful industrial power
james watt
– 1760s James Watt patents the steam engine
? Robert Fulton
– American, 1807 adopts power needs and invents the steam ship
– Learns of Engine while in Britain
? Eli Whitney
– Builds guns with standardized and interchangeable parts
? Pig iron
– Hardest metal before steal
early externalities
– Something that the marketplace does not capture
– Strip-mining of coal led to the contamination of groundwater and severe air pollution (from wood and coal burning)
SMITHIAN REVOLUTION
Adam Smith: Professor of the science of economics at the University of Glasgow, earns doctorate at Oxford
– Born 1723, died 1790
? Political economy
– Began looking at the world capitalism creates
? An Inquiry into Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776)
1776

– by 1800s published in all major western languages except Portuguese
– divisions of labor
– how capital works
– basis for supply and demand models
– role of gov’t: Smith believed the gov’t should only defend nation, internal security and judicial review
– criticized mercantilism and the gov’t protecting companies

? Free market
– Wanted free markets all around the world
? Laissez-faire
– Hands off, believes resources will be used wisely
? Invisible hand
– Guides to allocation of resources, thus economy
? Resource allocation
– Let the market take care of resources, will create and spread peace
? Classical economic theory
– Let the marketplace determine everything
– Gov’t role very small
? Mainstream economists
– Followed classical economic theory
? Neo-Smithians
– Believe when a problem is bad enough, the market will fix itself because there will be a profit to be made
? Free trade
– No trade barriers
– NAFTA (north American free trade agreement)
– Some environmentalists against globalization/free trade
Thomas Malthus
(1766-1834)
– father was a cosmographer
– People in cities of England saw population rapidly increase
– Pioneer of population studies that frame many environmental arguments today
– Overpopulation leads to famine, war and pandemics
– Vicious cycle: would die out, then increase again
? Robert Heilbroner
(1919-2005)
– Wrote “The Worldly Philosophers,” which was a survey of the lives and contributions of famous economists, including Thomas Malthus, Karl Marx and John Maynard Keynes. 2nd best selling economics book of all time.
? An Essay on the Principle of Population As it affects the Future Improvement of Society (1798)
-mathematical studies of geometric population growth
doubling
– exponential population growth
? Poverty, scarcity
not enough resources for growing population
-scarce resources lead to poverty
? Thomas Carlyle “the dismal science”
– Called Malthus’ work dismal science
– Malthus set the stage for population studies
? Scale
– Economic scale
– Asks: how much of our resources is there to allocate?
– Resources as finite
– How big can an economy get before it uses up all its resources?
– Are we living beyond our means?
? Green Revolution
– Increased productivity of food per acre
– Made soil that was once poor now moderately suitable to grow food
? Applied technology
a way applied technology to agricultural technology has delayed Malthus’ cycle of outstripping resources
? Birth control
– Leads to the slowing down of population growth
– Have been famines, pandemics and wars since 1800s
-ZPG movement: Zero Population Growth
you should only replace yourself
-principle spokesman of movement is Paul Ehrlich
-Malthusian argument
ecological economists
followers of Malthus’ ideas; believe global economy and population are already much too large, we have outstrip our ecosystems ability to sustain these levels; opposite of Smith
DAVID RICARDO
questioned who gets what in a capitalism society
-like Malthus, he questioned the “wonderful world” of Adam Smith
-maybe not is all good
-very wealthy man in his 20s (worth about $130 million)
-good friends with Malthus (didn’t agree with him on everything)
-did agree that all was not good
-questioned the ability to distribute resources and capital in a fair way
workers, capitalists, landlords
introduced urban industrial world to three groups
-workers
-capitalists
-landlords
-also to sheep, dogs, and pigs
-negative view of marketplace – Jungle of Avarice
escalator
for Smith, capitalism made everyone ride up
-escalator for Ricardo – workers powered the escalator so people could ride up, capitalist rode on stairs fighting each other to get higher, the landlords ride up in a special lane
The principles of political economy and taxation
1817, most famous work
rent, wages, profit
workers: sources of labor units without choice or free will
-delights from wages: gin, material goods, etc.
-capitalists: using wealthy people’s money to produce plants and products
-have to accumulate profit from sale, then reinvest it (bigger plants, more worker’s, etc.)
-in a good economy, capitalists’ do well
-compete with each other – lowers profits due to competition
-wages – paying wages; cuts into profit
-profits are checked by functioning economy
-landlords: people who skim off the top, regardless of how well the economy is doing
-rent is not checked by economy
-wages are checked by economy – improving economy, higher wages, bad economy = wage cut
-collects rent regardless of economic times – used that to invest in more land and other solid aspects
-buys more land, buys land that grows food and animals, etc. and eventually owns a share of the food production
-always making out on top in market economy
-live off the work of others
corn laws
opposed the Corn Laws that put tariffs on imported grain
-everyone in Britain had to pay more for corn and wheat
-constant struggle between three groups for who gets what
distribution
market economy doesn’t address this
-naturally favors landlords over capitalists and workers
-the government should work on behalf of capitalists and workers
-environmental consequence
-Ricardo’s world broke down into competing groups of people who used earth’s resources to maximize profits
profit maximization
potential of maximization is much greater than before
-every bit of earth can be used for profit (economic determinism)
-all of earth has a value
economic determinism
always seeks the lowest cost
-lowest cost: lower wages, lower standards, or lower safeguards (worker’s conditions or environmental safeguards)
KARL MARX
peasants were educated in Europe
-education is seed to revolution
Prussia, Austria
peasants were educated in Europe
-education is seed to revolution
1848 revolution
among the worst peasant revolutions against the monarchy and merchant classes; threatened social structures
-dialectical materialism
George Hegel
-surrounds the struggles between opposite forces
-broad thesis that Hegel had
-influenced Marx
-wrote radical literature in Germany and edited radical newspapers
Fredrich Engels
Marx’s writing partner
-together they developed theories behind socialism and communism
-all philosophies believed that economics controlled everything – environmental aspect
Communist Manifesto
eventually the world will favor the working classes
Das Kapital
banned from Europe and moved to New York City
-wrote 3 volume of Das Kapital (1867-1894)
-identify forces that define human history
-history is a series of struggles and triumphs
struggles in history
-first struggle: between hunter-gatherers and farmers
-dialectical change: when farmers triumph
-second struggle: farmers versus merchants
-merchants triumph
-third struggle: merchants versus capitalists
-capitalists triumph
-fourth struggle: bourgeoisie versus proletariat or workers
-this last struggle was ongoing
-capitalists versus workers is the ongoing struggle
-workers of the world will eventually triumph
-left with a socialist utopia
socialists utopia
workers triumph over capitalists
-Marx believed the struggle between workers and capitalists favored the capitalists
-workers would control natural state of socialism
1917 revolution
Marx based
-Marx and Engels set stage for Cold War
IT’S A TOUGH OLD WORLD
took Smithian philosophy and broadened it to changing times
-Herbert Spencer: “It’s a tough old world”
Spencer
Spencer saw only good in capitalism
-said it was a natural system
-developed a disdain for government interference in marketplace
synthetic philosophy and sociology
claimed his books were the process of original thought
-started a multi-volume series called Synthetic Philosophy
-sociology
-founder of sociology- study of aggregate human behavior
-quantifying megatrends and entire populations
-Spencer’s lasting impact of environment was negative
-based all theories on doctrine of evolution
Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin: theories of evolution
-theorized about natural selection and evolution
-Origin of Species
-Descent of Man
“survival of the fittest”
Spencer popularized the phrase “survival of the fittest”
-transferred to human beings and the survival of the fittest in a market economy
-the fittest survive because they were meant to by natural selection
-rich were rich because they deserved to be rich
-William Graham Sumner, anglophile, social darwinism, captains of industry, gov’ts role
friend of Spencer
-he was an anglophile: loved everything English (ways, world dominance)
-viewed US as inheritor of England
-government has no role in modifying or working in the marketplace
-all the government does in marketplace is cause problems
-captains of industry: wealthy Americans who took advantage of expanding country to become wealthy capitalists; guiding industry in the right direction; no government interference
-some people began to wonder about limits and shortages; Spencer said that it’s a tough old world
-meaning the world had plenty of capacity to deal with anything that came up
-believed human beings couldn’t hurt the planet
IRON HORSE
railroad called the iron horse
transportation revolution
– Railroad symbol of 19th century industrialization
– Railroads were world’s first big business
– Iron horse completed the transportation revolution
– First Great Britain, then United States and Western Europe
– British technology, steam drawn engine
? Spin-off industries
– Steel industry small before railroads demand steel, lead to standardization and increased demand
– Machine industry, needed precision
? Iron and steel
– Bessemer process, first inexpensive industrial process for mass production of steel from molten pig iron.
– Invented by Henry Bessemer
? Bessemer process
– Key principle is removal of impurities from the iron by oxidation with air being blown through the molten iron. The oxidation also raises the temperature of the iron mass and keeps it molten.
– .4 % carbon
– Pig iron 3.8% carbon
– Finally significant steel production
? London smog
– By 1800s in Great Britain
– From coal smoke
– Bad air pollution by 1950
– In Summer, when combined with heat would cause some with weak respiratory systems to die
? Profit maximization
– 1840s, growth of transportation network in US
– Railroads expensive to build so railroad tycoons look to maximize profit
? Hierarchical management
– Had to account for everything
– Started hierarchical management to oversee large number of employees
? Time zones
– Mid 1800s railroad owners from around the globe create time zones to standardize time across the world
? Stocks and bonds
– Railroads helped create Wall Street and London Stock Exchange
– 1860: 30,000 miles of track..1914: 200,000 miles of track
– First major business
? The great resource gobbler
– Used vast amounts of wood and coal
– In terms of resource gobbling, the automobile of the 19th century
LUDDISM
workers in early 1800s in England
-broke new textile machines that were being produced
-Luddism: responses to industrial revolution that figures strongly into today’s environmentalism
-changing world that is fueled by changing technology ? rapid change
weavers, stockingers, croppers
many skilled workers now working in textiles
-weavers, stockingers (people who make socks), and croppers (turn cloth into product)
-got good wages for it, made good products
Nichol’s Fox, Against the Machine
Nichol’s Fox wrote Against the Machine
-capitalism turned downward in early 1800s
-three bad crop years, which meant prices were higher, tariffs, harder to export
-competition between textile mills: all hurt workers
-capitalists were hurt by this; not making as much profit
-workers weren’t getting the wages they wanted
capitalists, skilled and unskilled workers
capitalists: resorted to methods that cut costs; used looms to replace skilled workers
-reduced number of workers needed
-response to this was Luddite Rebellion
Luddite Rebellion, ned or king budd, nottingham, machine breaking
-began in 1811
-Ned or King Ludd? not sure if he existed (leader of movement)
-Luddites were skilled textile workers who didn’t like the new machines because they would put them out of work
-first machine breaking took place in middle of night near town of Nottingham, England
-broke in and smashed six machines in lace making factory
-originators of machine breaking recruited other workers
-plant owners responded by hiring armed guards and spies; got British government to pass laws against machine breaking and make it a capital crime
-Luddites continued and reaction grew stronger
-found, arrested, tried, some were hanged
-by end of 1813, after dozens had been executed, the Luddite Rebellion had been broken
-modern Luddism: aversion to modernity, fear of the machine, fear of capitalism
aversion to modernity: want the natural world; old ways are always better than new ways
-fear of the machine: machines control our lives;
-fear of capitalism: capitalism working with a defending government; government and businesses are working together against the workers
-there is an element of Luddism in modern environmentalism (every year we get more technological and farther from nature)
PRESERVATION
civilization had become too urbanized and technological
-began to appreciate nature
Roderick Nash: Romantic Wilderness
chapter that discusses attitude that sweeps across urban Europe and America
-wilderness appreciation
-romanticism: idea that nature and wilderness were beautiful and not always for subjugation and use for human race
-recalls Greco-Roman times
primitivism
closely tied to romanticism
-Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s idea
-“the natural man”
-one who is not living in civilization
-in natural settings, humans were good and equal; corrupted by civilization
-people who live closer to nature are stronger; people who are completely removed are weaker
-Keats, Shelley, Byron
English poets who celebrated nature in poetry
-celebrate what Rousseau called the noble savage
noble savage
person like Yali; better because they weren’t corrupted; weakened people; those who lived closer to nature; no need to bring them out of Stone Age
-looked at beauty of nature and lament its disappearance
sublimity
nature was sublime; inspiring all; admiration
-how nature was described
-tried to put God back into nature
expanding empire
America: civilizations had to subdue the wild Indians
-US was an expanding empire that was moving across the continent
transcendentalism
American counter-part to romanticism

aversion to tradition and authority
-partly in material world, but human souls allowed them to transcend human condition

Coleridge, Kant, Carlyle, and Wordsworth
influenced literature in America: celebrated wilderness and began to apply their own religious views to it
-idea borrowed from Europe
-Wordsworth: “moral impulses come from nature”
-morality is in nature
-optimistic philosophy based on strength of individual to control his/her life and destiny
self-reliance
being a better person so you can do better things for the world
Emerson, Fuller, Thoreau
part of new nation that was rapidly changing (America)
-Emerson: founder of American transcendentalism
-“in the wilderness, I find something more dear than I do in streets and villages”
-return to reason and faith in nature
-Fuller: another founder of movement; feminist, abolitionist; promoted transcendentalism and self-reliance; problems with society were individual problems, not society’s
-“greedy me, monster me”
-improving yourself improves the world; closeness to nature
-Thoreau: simplify your life
legacies for environment
Hudson River School of painting
-founder was Cole – painted nature as predominant thing; celebrating nature
-celebrating nature instead of people
-Bierstadt: one of Cole’s students; painted on giant canvas’s; celebrating nature; no humans
-idea that people are going to preserve wild land; not get rid of everything
-gave idea to American public: lots of undeveloped land that could be preserved
TOWARD BIODIVERSITY
john muir
John Muir: environmentalist; born in Scotland and moved to Wisconsin; eventually made his way out to California; became an activist
biocentrism perspective
idea that nature has rights and value in and of itself; not there just to serve the human race
-Muir was first proponent of biocentrism
-wilderness had value
anthropocentrism
idea that it’s all about humans and what impact things have on humans
? Issue Four: Taking Sides
? C. Josh Donlan, Rubenstein, et al
? Scientific comparison
? Convervation biology
? Answers, truth primordial past, spirituality
? Inspiration
? The rights of nature
Should North America’s landscape be restored to its pre-human state?
-taking it back to where it was originally and have all the species there that were there previously
-need large tracts of land to do this experiment
-yes: C. Josh Donlan; evolutionary biologist; it is our responsibility to restore North America to its pre-human state; bio-centric view; humans don’t always come first; it can be done;
-no: Rubenstein, et al; it can’t technically be done; evolutionary ecologist; not fair to the current species living here; need vast areas of land and land that can be restored
-traditional reasons for protecting biodiversity:
-wilderness or bio-diverse land is healthy land; developed land is unhealthy land
-why is it important to have healthy land?
-important for scientific comparison: how will we know what healthy land is if there is none left to look at? (John Muir’s idea)
-wilderness or bio-diverse land contains answers to questions that we have not yet learned to ask
-sort of anthropocentric reason for protecting biodiversity
-many endangered species exist in wilderness areas; what if one of these species contained a cure for an epidemic disease?
-it can really help the human race; therefore we can’t destroy habitat of all of world
-contains answers to our questions
-people who believe in this are known as conservation biologists: look at why its important to look at wild land preserved in its natural state
-primordial past: find connections with past;
-find truth and the real world in wilderness
-spirituality and inspiration: anthropocentric reason; inspires awe and admiration of natural world; closeness and spirituality;
-the rights of nature: wilderness is valuable regardless of human beings; nature has the right to exist
-humans have the duty to protect other species
-true biocentrism
-protecting the biodiversity of the planet
UTILITARIAN CONSERVATION
scientific side of environmentalism
-was a movement that was part of the Enlightenment (Scientific Revolution)
-intellectual movement
-idea that you could explain everything
-human race could explain the universe
Francis Bacon
well ahead of time; set framework for Enlightenment scientists to follow; developed method called induction
-induction: can apply to science and philosophy and politics
-wrote a book called Novum Organum: “The New Method”
-said that researchers should observe and then generalize from observations; the modern method of trial and error science
Isaac Newton
physics, gravity, etc.; great leap forward in Enlightenment science
-had influence in Europe as well as America
Benjamin Franklin
studied Newtonian science in Europe; gave a lot of practicality to Newton’s theories and invented practical things; helped bring Enlightenment to US; idea that everything can be explained and solved by science

all paved way for new universities ? new diverse scientific departments
-beginning to shape American technology

George Marsh, man and nature, new glaciers
development of American West: resource depletion; rapid development
-first to call attention to this was George Marsh
-lawyer by training but read widely in scientific literature
-he observed land while in Turkey and Italy
-wrote a book called Man and Nature
-natural advantages of Roman Empire, Physical Decay of Territory of Roman Empire
-argues that it was resource depletion that caused fall of Roman Empire
-did not use them carefully
-Rome is an example for the modern world (especially US)
-we are depleting our resources at an incredible pace and if we don’t stop this, we will face destruction
-extinctions of entire species, forest depletion, extermination of whole groups of animals
-called human beings the new glaciers: like the glaciers, which created the Great Lakes, glaciers have lasting impact on the earth
-urged humanity to abolish resource waste
-utilitarian conservation was what he was talking about
issue three
Should a price be put on goods provided by ecosystems?
-yes: Losey and Vaughn; services provided by insects; dung beetle processes cattle waste; pollinators, pest control; estimate that insect services provide human race with about $60 billion a year of services in US; there should be a price on the services
-no: Gatto and de Leo; professors of applied ecology; better to put a price on nation goods than to think that it will always be infinite; danger in valuing the environment is that it all becomes part of environmental valuation; resources have no value unless used by humans; all becomes about economics; will lead to cost/benefit analysis of everything; only economic values will matter
-environmental valuation: putting a price on nature; what utilitarian conservation is doing today
-brought science and resource allocation into question
-says that its limited; we don’t have limitless resources
WORLD CONSERVATION
Gifford Pinchot
was a millionaire; grew up fairly conservative; father loved outdoors; took him camping; Yale University; read Marsh’s book ? changed his life
-feared that US would run out of resources if something wasn’t done
-decided to be a forester; studied at French forestry school; studied silviculture
-silviculture: control the forest, grow trees, practice forestry techniques, plant seedlings when you cut, don’t clear cut; brought this knowledge back to US
-came back to US and practice forestry on private land
-entered government while Theodore Roosevelt was president
-Pinchot became director and chief of US Forest Service
-Roosevelt supported this

utilitarian conservation was put into practice on huge tracts of federal land
-became National Forests
-Pinchot expanded his ideas into reality
-national conservation and international conservation

conservation
wanted to call it something bigger than forestry
-conservators ? foresters in Europe
-allowed for resources for present and future
pinchot 1907
became director of Inland Waterways Commission
-Pinchot’s idea that if you could control all waterways of country under conservationism, everything would be better
-controlled all natural resource decisions of nation
-resources would be allocated according to federal government
-national commission
pinchot 1908
time to take it global; envisioned a world conservation organization
-similar to national conservation
-Taft didn’t like this idea; Pinchot didn’t have as much power anymore
-idea of world conservation fell through
international conservation
similar to a League of Nations
-need a world government; why its never been done
-if we had this, it would deal with externalities that were developing with natural resources
international conservation, externalities
national and international conservation organizations would deal with these (air pollution, water pollution, etc.)
YPRES
city in Belgium where a series of battles were fought that geographically characterized what was going on in this time period

war = by product of industrializing nations
-result of seeking out resources
-effort to go out and get resources and rivalries
-global warfare has left toxic waste
-took world from a large planet to a small planet with thermal nuclear disaster in span of single lifetime

where the allies made their stand to stop the Germans
-British stopped German’s advance to North Sea

world war I
caused globe to become a small planet with toxic waste
-first truly global war (1914-1918)
-50 million people killed
-all continents were involved
-introduced world to new weapons
Great European Civil War
-by 1915: all of Europe was at war

Germans felt they came to colonization game late, and had to play catch up in colonial race
-thought it would be a quick war

1870s: Franco-Prussian war was fought
-first war that whole nations went to fight, not just soldiers
-alliances formed

assassination of franz ferdinand
alliances allowed for the assassination of Franz Ferdinand (1914), which started WWI
-after this, all the nations in Europe went to war; called the Great European Civil War
1st battle of ypres
1914
-early in the war
-Winston Churchill (prime minister of Great Britain): foot soldier in 1st Battle of Ypres
-British stand against German march to North Sea
-238,000 dead and wounded
-machine guns were used
2nd battle of ypres
between April and June 1915
-poison gas was used (chemical warfare)
-blister, tear, vomiting, and never gas were used
-flamethrower: ignites a liquid that sets everything on fire
-105,000 casualties
3rd battle of ypres
July-November 1917
-tanks were better
-aerial warfare
-casualties dead and wounded = 570,000
-915,000 dead and wounded at Battle of Ypres
-devastation of human life that world had never seen before
-Ypres: devastating example of global warfare
-example of what technology could do to change warfare, people, and the environment
-environmental areas are still too toxic to grow crops (poison gas contamination)
INFLUENZA, at the time of:
at the time of this, more than half the world was locked in warfare
-food production was completely disrupted
-healthcare was disrupted
-sanitary services were compromised
-clean water was contaminated
-wartime conditions existed
-millions of soldiers marching around the world
influenza, questionable origins
origins of flu are questionable
-doubtful it began in Spain
-swine-flu virus that came out of Asia
-called Spanish flu because so many people died of it in Spain
-came from domestication of pigs
Alfred Crosby
wrote Columbian Exchange) and America’s Forgotten Pandemic
-about the Spanish flu
America’s forgotten Pandemic, wartime conditions, camp fuston,KS, Albert Mitchell
occurred in US in March 1918
-Albert Mitchell: stationed at Camp Funston, KS; patient zero; company cook; one of about 30,000 soldiers who were training to go across Atlantic; first who reported flu-like symptoms; within one week, 48 young men had died from illness at Camp Funston
-headed back to Europe through transport ships
-by April, epidemic had arrived in France, by May it had spread throughout Eurasia
-most people who died of this died from a form of pneumonia
-flu was fueled by wartime conditions

first case of Spanish flu occurred in US in March 1918
-Albert Mitchell: stationed at Camp Funston, KS; patient zero; company cook; one of about 30,000 soldiers who were training to go across Atlantic; first who reported flu-like symptoms; within one week, 48 young men had died from illness at Camp Funston
-headed back to Europe through transport ships
-by April, epidemic had arrived in France, by May it had spread throughout Eurasia
-most people who died of this died from a form of pneumonia
-flu was fueled by wartime conditions
-second wave of virus hit strongly in US in summer of 1918
-mutation of first virus, only even more deadly
-third wave hit in fall of 1918
-stayed around until mid-1919

US Public Health Service
organized in 1912 to deal with large-scale diseases in human beings
-told people to wear masks
-found that lungs were literally eaten out by virus
-ships were breeding grounds for virus and germ spreaders
Woodrow Wilson
president at the time; negotiated peace in Paris and contracted the flu
-sickness hurt his amicable peace relations
-came back and tried to campaign for ratification of treaty and had stroke; never really recovered
-Franklin Roosevelt
-president in 1930’s and 40’s; went over as soldier in WWI; contracted flu in Europe; came back with double pneumonia; bedridden for weeks; suffered polio; never walked again; susceptible to polio because of flu
-only last two years
-US government response was slow
-rapid transference was due to war, and weakened people due to wartime conditions
STALINGRAD, interwar period
interwar period between two wars (WWI and WWII)
adolf hitler, NAZIs
Adolf Hitler, Nazi leader, invaded Poland
-eventually Nazi’s took over most of Europe
Josef Stalin
Josef Stalin – Soviet Leader at time
Battle of Stalingrad
in June 1941, Nazi’s broke a non-aggression pack with Soviet Union and invaded Soviet Union
-eventually marched 15 million troops eastward ? leading to Battle of Stalingrad
Volgograd
today it is called Volgograd because they have written Stalin out of history
-Nazi’s destroyed just about every city from western border to Stalingrad
-bombing capital
Caspian Sea
Hitler planned to get out to rich oil fields around Caspian Sea
-Nazis didn’t have enough oil ? needed oil fields
-put everything they had in capture of Stalingrad
Great Patriotic War
continuous battle with siege after siege
-thousands dying
-1.5 million troops
-Germans took control of Stalingrad for a while, Soviet troops came in from Moscow and fired into Stalingrad; killed many Germans
-battle began in fall of 1942 and ended in June 1943
-Soviet’s took control of Stalingrad
-this battle is where the power of the Nazis were broken
-most significant battle of WWII
-Soviet men and women took part in battle

raged on for about 6 months; tremendous destruction
-with Stalingrad saved, Soviets began to advance to west reclaiming territory Nazis had taken
-covered land area of 70,000 square miles
-destroyed vegetation, roads, towns, cities, etc.
-at least ? a million Soviets died in combat, and ? million Germans
-1 million dead from this one battle

Lilya Litvyak
Soviet fighter pilot
-had 12 confirmed kills before she was shot down and killed
-example of patriotism
ETHYL
ethyl corporation
Tetraethyl lead
-tetraethyl:
-great example of what our government will do when it wants something to win the war
-first developed for peacetime purposes, to make money, and to propel people better across America
-first used to improve performance of internal combustion engines
Charles Ketterine
Kettering: scientist and inventor
-invented starter for car
Alfred P. Sloan, General Motors, Ethyl Corporation
1921 Kettering and Alfred Sloan (guy who organized General Motors ? smaller car companies) formed a partnership as well as leaders of standard oil companies
-formed Ethyl Corporation
-under Sloan, GM was trying to beat Ford as the biggest car marker of world
-believed that a more powerful engine was the way to do that
-adding tetraethyl lead to gasoline improved power as much as 25% without adding any more “noc” or “ping” to the engine’s performance
-noc and ping: ticking noise; engine is not firing fully
-adding lead to it reduced level of noc and ping in engine
-during WWII
-did more damage and destruction than any war in history
higher-octane gasoline
higher-octane gas with lead makes engines perform a whole lot better
-make older engines fall apart because they couldn’t handle this type of gasoline (higher compression engines)
-federal government got involved to make Ethyl Corporation more successful (because sales fell during depression)
-government had decided that war was going to happen
-gearing up for WWII
-more money with better engines and higher-octane fuels
-war could be won with higher technology
-by late 30s and 40s there is leaded gasoline everywhere
-if the federal government wants something that it considers necessary for safety, it will get it
-new fuels helped win WWII
-leaded gasoline was part of the world until the 1970s in US
Clair Patterson, lead poisoning
leaded gasoline was part of the world until the 1970s in US
-all along people knew there were problems with lead in atmosphere
-lead poisoning
-atmospheric lead pollution was not considered a problem until a Cal-Tech guy (Claire Patterson) noticed that there was atmospheric contamination due to lead
-because world was using so much lead, it was contaminating whole planet
-federal government realized it was bad for public health
-phased out use of lead in gasoline
-success story in environmental history: declining air pollutant (lead)
THE SCORCHED EARTH
The Ecology of War
Vietnam
Vietnam had been occupied by Japan during WWII
-let French come back in and re-establish colonial hole
-North Vietnamese, with support of Communist China, resisted French coming in; war broke out for about 8 years; Vietnam was then divided into north and South Vietnam
-US stepped in because South Vietnam was friendly to west
-by mid 1960s, 500,000 US troops in Vietnam
defoliation
enemy could easily move through jungles ? eventual solution was to get rid of jungle
-defoliate jungle
-enemy can’t move easily and can’t hide; contaminate water supply
agent orange
agent orange: combination of hydrocarbons and kerosene; sprayed on jungles
-20 million gallons were sprayed
Operation Ranch Hand, jungle fires, weather modification
defoliating jungles of Vietnam
-motto: “Only we can prevent forests”
-used thousands of gallons of diesel fuel and kerosene going into jungles for jungle burning
-ground and surface water contamination
-military attempted to modify Vietnams weather
-caused rain; upset enemy
Rome Plows
plowed through jungles
carpet bombs
little bombs and bombed one after another
napalm
destroyed forests and enemy..vietnam has still not recovered from this..major legacy of global warfare
Jacksonville,AR, dioxinville
in 90s, people started having high rates of Hodgkin’s disease; place where agent orange was made; contaminated site; leached into groundwater – declared a superfund site
-after this, new nickname for place was Dioxinville
Persian Gulf War, Kuwait Invasion, Saddam Hussein, mother of all battles
George HW Bush decided Hussein to invade Kuwait
-Polish countries backed an agreement with US
-Saddam Hussein promised the mother of all battles if allies prevailed
-as Iraqi’s started to retreat, they set oil well fires, dumped crude by thousands of barrels into Persian Gulf, etc.
-campaign for Hussein of environmental terrorism
-in wake of invasion, ally troops used smart bombs and missiles; wiped out Iraqi
environmental terrorism, oil spills, gulf war syndrome
as Iraqi’s started to retreat, they set oil well fires, dumped crude by thousands of barrels into Persian Gulf, etc.
-campaign for Hussein of environmental terrorism

oil spills were devastating – shallow water Persian Gulf (plants/animals killed)
-fires raged on for weeks and months
-smoke contained harmful chemicals (altered bird patterns, killed animals, impact soldiers – came up wit Gulf War Syndrome)
-complained of headache, memory loss, fatigue, sleep disorders, respiratory illness, etc.
-greatest environmental damage was to ecosystem between Kuwait and Iraq
-when war comes, it takes precedent over almost everything else

H-BOMB
da bomb de hydrogena
Atomic Cafe
1982, film
use tranquilizers in shelter to deal with the chaos
civil defense
sings everywhere saying that you need to be ready for a nuclear attack, have a fallout shelter, etc.
fallout shelters
there were even public signs of fallout shelters if it had a basement; preparation for nuclear war
Dr. Strangelove
stanley kubrick directed film, 1964

very radical, going against the ethos of the day, saying you can’t survive the nuclear times so you might as well reconcile yourself with it, subtitle “how I learned to stop worrying and love the bomb”
? Equal to 16x the explosive force of all the shells and bombs used by all the armies in WWII

fail safe
also said thermonuclear war is not winnable and nobody will be left, h-bomb can destroy all biological life on earth
atmospheric tests
o US/USSR kept testing these huge weapons, nuclear fallout into places that it really should be going (oceans, etc.)
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
o Environmentalists began to say that this really should be reconsidered, resulted in first communication between US and Soviets in post-war period saying that testing needed to stop
? Led to 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which stopped atmospheric testing
ban the bomb
o Demonstrations began to make people aware of the devastation that occurred from nuclear war, many of these people wanted to get rid of nuclear weapons entirely, went from stopping atmospheric testing ? Ban the Bomb
nuclear fatalism
o Also inspired nuclear fatalism: became early environmental movement, inspired other types of activism
the bomb and environmentalism
? The bomb inspired the activism to go up against authority and created the environmentalism of the day
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