ENVI 101
If you use 12lbs of grain to feed an animal, about how much meat will you get out of it?
1lb
Which of these biomes has high productivity and low diversity?
a. Boreal coniferous forests
b.coral reef
c. tropical rainforest
d. mangrove swamp
mangrove swamp
A _______ is a wetland with trees in it.

a. bog b. swamp c. marsh d.estuary

swamp
You are more likely to see higher trophic level predators in the land or sea or equal?
sea
Experts are predicting that there will be major wars in the future over water. T or F?
True
________ should be at most 10% of your diet in order to live healthy.

Sugar, meat and dairy, carbs, or fruits and veggys

Sugar
The three characteristics of wetlands are…
plants (hydrophytes), hydric soils and inundation
What are three consequences of outside culture arriving in Ladakh?
1. Decrease in women’s power in society
2. Increase in crime
3. Prevalence of drug abuse
Wetlands are important for these 4 reasons.
1. They filter out environmental toxins 2. They serve as a home for wildlife 3. They slow flood waters 4. They collect runoff from erosion
Name 4 wetland organisms
1. Sphagnum
2. Mallard duck
3. Red Maple
4. Wood frog
What most allowed for the development of urbanization?
Agriculture
A typical predator population will follow in sync with a prey population, with no lag. T or F?
False
According to the video seen in discussion, about what percent of grain production is used for cattle instead of human consumption?
80%
What kind of biome is found at 30 degrees latitude North and South?
Deserts
What is the best food for a good diet?
Complex carbs
Coral Reefs have been destroyed greatly by arsenic. T or F?
False, by poor land use, disease and overfishing
The tropical rainforest has the tallest trees on earth, T or F?
False
How many calories are in a gram of fat?
9cal/g
The best way to classify a wetland is by
Flora Identification
Eutrophication is characterized by (3)
1. nutrient rich
2. very productive
3. depleted of oxygen
List 3 aspects of counterdevelopment
1. decentralization
2. preservation of family structure
3. preservation of farming
A major limiting factor in the rainforest ecosystem is (2)
light and nutrients
What are 3 characteristics of boreal forests?
1. Coniferous trees
2. Cold temps
3. Permafrost
Spring and Fall turnover occur due to
change in water temps
As a temperature of a liquid increases (ie our oceans from global warming), the liquids ability to hold gases ________.
decreases
The best way to get rid of sewage treatment plant effluent is to pour it into a ________.
river
Which of the following biomes is least affected by fire?
Temperate deciduous forest
Water is densest at
4 degrees Celcius
Which of the following biomes has most of its nutrients in the living biomass?
tropical rain forest
In the US it takes about _______ calories of fossil fuel to get one calorie into your stomach.
15
Attempts to solve the problem of salinization in agricultural soils are most likely to result in
water logging
DDT is dangerous because
it is soluble in fats AND it takes a long time to biodegrade
Desertification is most common in ________.
Sub-Saharan Africa
Which forest type is most accurately described as a “forest growing upon itself” because of all the dead wood on the forest floor?
Temperate deciduous forest
6 things you should understand that explain why we have diff. types of vegitation
1. earth is round
2. earth is tilted
3. 365 days
4. 24hrs a day
5. size of planet
6. distance from sun
Outside of the tropics, two things mainly dictate vegetation
Temperature and precipitation
Biome map will be similar to this map (2)
Climate and soil
TROPICAL RAINFOREST
-67 layers

-vertically complex

-80% of species found here

-H2O doesn’t limit; some competition for nutrients; lots of competition for sun

-Lots of GAPS because tall trees fall

-Emergent trees:grow taller than any other

-Epiphytes

TROPICAL DECIDUOUS RAINFOREST
animals
-Sloth:canopy animal, slow metabolism, only eats greens

-Leaf Cutter Ants:canopy, bark, feed leaves to fungi and then eat fungi

-Poison Dart Frog

-Epiphytes

-Something about tubular and hummingbird pollination

-Mostly gone in China

-Yearround precipitation with warm and cold season

-High diversity

-Limestone

-Spring Wild Flowers: Spring Beauty, Shooting Star: Short growing season, take a long time to grow (up to 10years)

SAVANNAH
-Dry forest that burns with fire every few years => keeps tree cover down

-Favors grass growth-needs fire and grazing to survive

-Biggest producers of fixed carbon are TERMITES

DESERTS
-30 degree latitude N+S

-Root systems compete to find H2O

-Reptiles better adapted to H2O source than mammals

-Kangaroo Rat, uses photosynthesis to create H2O

-Jack Rabbit-big ears to lose heat

-Balebod trees hold H2O in trunks

BOREALCONIFEROUS FORESTS
-Biggest type of forest
-Great White North
-Northern half is permafrost and wetlands
-stored carbon
-low diversity of trees b/c of low temp

-Most trees are small needle evergreens

-Spruce trees

-Thick moss on soil

-Pyramid shape to handle snow

-Carbon fixed in PEAT MOSS-highest producing in the world where most CO2 has gone (storage)

-large diversities and large trees

-Sequoia is largest tree, needs fire to be born otherwise firs will grow and when fire happens, it will climb up firs to sequoias

TEMPERATE (CONIFEROUS) RAINFOREST
-Pacific Northern Coast, west side of continent by winds

-Moss covered grounds

-Tremendous amounts of wood on ground

-Dependent on large trees falling

-Devil’s Club (large thorns) grow throughout

-Redwoods need fires at large intervals to destroy competition

-Lots of epiphytes

-Cedar and Maple

PRARIES (and reminants)
SHORTGRASS:
-Grass, herbaceous plants, legumes (ie: blue indigo)

-Maintained by burning regularly, “presribed burns”

-90% of biomass is below ground

-neutral soil

-Bison

-Short grass has most extreme temp. change in US: grow wheat, flax, sugar beats

-Nomadic herders

-Resident Shrubs: evolved to burn

TEMPERATE:
-Midwest; border is temp. decid. forest; tall grasses reach 12feet
-Schapparal, S. Cali: burns every 5-10yrs

THE LONGER ITS BEEN SINCE THE LAST FIRE, THE MORE FUEL THERE IS FOR THE NEXT ONE

ALPINE TUNDRA
-Adirondacks

-Same plants as arctic tundra but no permafrost

Temperature in Aquatic Systems and why it’s significant
Temp is uniformed and less energy is needed to maintain body temp so it has a longer food chain then terrestrial ecosystem
Key Factors of Aquatic Ecosystems
-Lights gets dimmed by H2O so photosynthesis can only occur until a certain depth (clarity of H2O tells productivity)

-Gases; Oxygen is limiting: Concentration of gases in H2O is directly correlated with temp (low river means low amts of oxygen)

-Flow Rate of H2O: whatever moves water, brings oxygen to it

-Less productivity per square unit area

8 Ways of Sustainable Food Production
1. Shifting Agriculture
2. Flood Plain Agriculture
3. Irrigation
4. Wet Rice Agriculture
5. Permaculture
6. Swamp Ridge Cultivation
7. Biointensive Agriculture
8. Mixed Farming
In what kind of climates does Mixed Farming work as a form of sustainable food production?
RELATIVELY cold climates like in the Northeast
Biointensive Agriculture
-Sustainable Food Production
-Making raised beds with compost throughout the system
-Small scale
-Labor intensive
Swamp Ridge Cultivation
-Sustainable Food Production
-Never done on a huge scale
-wet ridges, dry tops
Permaculture
-Sustainable Food Production
-based on woody plants
-derived from complexity of tropical forest
Wet Rice Agriculture
-Sustainable Food Production
-Type of irrigation where it rains a lot
-Nitrogen fixing organisms live in rice patties
-Need ducks, fish, geese, animals
-Other high starch crops like bananas grow in same area
-1 calorie in:25 out, HIGHLY EFFICIENT in traditional way
ARCTIC TUNDRA
-Tall plants can’t grow because it’s too cold
-Permafrost, ground is frozen year-round 1-2 feet down so roots can’t go deep (small plants grow)
– Extreme ecology
-Not much diversity: small, tough, slow growing
-Shallow pools when grounds thaw: Polygon ponds, very productive with mosquitos and insects in the summer; birds come and breed
-2-3mo growing season that lasts 24hrs/day
-Animals with round little ears and short hair
-Lemmings multiply quickly b/c they eat grass so predators can’t control the population; 4yr cycle
-Caribou, try to get away from biting insects so they migrate
-Tree line: line between trees and tundra
-Tamagon (related to pheasant) feathers turn white in winter
MONTANE CONIFEROUS FORESTS
-Alps, cascades, rockies
-Huge changes in elevation lets diff. kinds of trees get segregated by altitude
-Fire ladder=low branches so it can shoot right up

Sediment from the Susquehanna River is flowing to this Dam which is (unintentionally) giving the Chesapeake Bay a break from but it is soon about to overflow

Coniwingo Dam

There is a long distance relationship between  (3)

o   Diet and health

o   Food production and consequences (Gulf of Mexico has 1foot of fertile topsoil)

o   Diet and exploitation of people

3 types of fat
1. monounsat(plant) 2. saturated 3. polyun(plant)
*Animal fat is at least 1/2 unsaturated fat *All fats are a mix of all three
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