Enviornmental science
Consumptive use
A type of off-stream water use. This water is consumed by plants and animals or in industrial processes or evaporates during use. It is not returned to its source.
Desalination
The removal of salts from seawater or brackish water so that the water can be used for purposes such as agriculture, industrial processes, or human consumption.
Effluent Stream
Type of stream where flow is maintained during the dry season by ground water seepage into the channel
Groundwater
Water found beneath the Earth’s surface within the zone of saturation below water table
Influent Stream
Type of stream that is everywhere above the groundwater table and flows in direct response to percipitation; water from the channel moves down to water table, forming recharge mound.
In-stream use
A type of water use that includes navigation, generation of hydroelectric power, fish and wildlife habitat, and recreation.
Off-stream use
Type of water use where water is removed from its source for a particular use.
Sustainable water use
Use of water resources that does not harm the environment and proviedes for the existence of high-quality water for future generations.
Virtual water
The amount of water neccessary to produce a product, such as rice or, in industry, an automobile
Water Budget
Inputs and outputs of water for a particular system (a drainage basin, region, continent, or entire Earth)
Water Conservation
Pratices designed to reduce the amount of water we use
Wetlands
A comprehensive term for landforms such as salt marshes, swamps, bogs, prairie potholes, and vernal pools. Their common feature is that they are wet at least part of the year and as a result have a particular type of vegetation and soil.
Alternative energy
are divided into renewable energy
Nonrenewable alternative energy
sources include nuclear energy and deep earth geothermal energy
Passive solar energy systems
do not use mechanical pumps
Active solar energy systems
require mechanical power
Solar collectors
to provide space heating or hot water
Photovoltaics
convert sunlight directly into electricity
Fuel cells
are highly efficient power generating systems that produce electricity by combining fuel and oxygen
Geothermal energy
makes use of energy within the earth
Renewable energy
cyle of recharge
Water power
is a form of stored solar energy that has been successfully harnessed
Wind power
like solar power, produce when different heat of earths surface creates air masses.
Commons
Land that belongs to the public, not to individuals. Any resource owned publicly with public access for private uses
Direct Costs
Cost borne by the producer in obtaining, processing, and distributing a product.
nvironmental Economics
Involves persuading people and organizations to act in a way that benefits the enviornment within a democratic framework.
Extranality (indirect costs)
in economic, an efect not normally accounted for in the cost-revenue analysis. Cost and benefit does not show up in price tag.
Intangible Factor
One you cannot touch directly, but people value it
Tangible Factor
one you can touch, buy, and sell
Natural Capital
Ecological system that provide public service benefits
Public-service functions
Services ecosystem provide to humans and the environment
Risk-benefit Analysis
The riskiness of a present action in terms of its possible outcomes is weighed against the benefit, or value of the action
Policy Instruments
What we do, what we can do, and how we do it
Allowance Trading
Through which the Environmental Protect Agency utility companies tradable allowances of polluting.
Coal
Are partially composed vegetation; solid, brittle, carbonaceous rocks that is one of the world’s most abundant fossil fuels.
Crude Oil
Naturally occuring petroleum, normally pumped from wells in oil fields.
Fossil Fuel
Forms of stored solar energy (plants convert solar energy to chemical energy through photosynthesis.
Methane Hydrate
A white ice like compound made up of molecules of methane gas trapped in “cages” of frozen water in the sediment of the deep seafloor.
Natural Gas
Naturally occuring gaseous hydrocarbon (methane) generally associated with crude oil or from gas wells.
Oil Shale
A fine-grained sedimentary rock containing organic material known as kerosene.
Peak Oil
Refers to the time in the future when one-half of the earth’s oil has been exploited. Expected to occur between 2020 and 2050
Scrubbing
A process of removing sulfur from gases emitted from power plans burning coal. The gasses are treated with slurry lime and limestone, and the sulfur oxides react with the calcium to form insoluble calcium sulfides and sulfates that are collected and disposed of.
Synfuels
Synthetic fuels, which may by liquid or gaseous, derived from solid fuels, such as oil from kerosene in oil shale, or oil gas from coal.
Tar Sands
Sedimentary rocks or sands impregnated with tar oil, asphalt, or bitumen.
Allowance Trading
Through which the Environmental Protect Agency utility companies tradable allowances of polluting.
Coal
Are partially composed vegetation; solid, brittle, carbonaceous rocks that is one of the world’s most abundant fossil fuels.
Crude Oil
Naturally occuring petroleum, normally pumped from wells in oil fields.
Fossil Fuel
Forms of stored solar energy (plants convert solar energy to chemical energy through photosynthesis.
Methane Hydrate
A white ice like compound made up of molecules of methane gas trapped in “cages” of frozen water in the sediment of the deep seafloor.
Natural Gas
Naturally occuring gaseous hydrocarbon (methane) generally associated with crude oil or from gas wells.
Oil Shale
A fine-grained sedimentary rock containing organic material known as kerosene.
Peak Oil
Refers to the time in the future when one-half of the earth’s oil has been exploited. Expected to occur between 2020 and 2050
Scrubbing
A process of removing sulfur from gases emitted from power plans burning coal. The gasses are treated with slurry lime and limestone, and the sulfur oxides react with the calcium to form insoluble calcium sulfides and sulfates that are collected and disposed of.
Synfuels
Synthetic fuels, which may by liquid or gaseous, derived from solid fuels, such as oil from kerosene in oil shale, or oil gas from coal.
Tar Sands
Sedimentary rocks or sands impregnated with tar oil, asphalt, or bitumen.
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