Enviro Ch. 3
Range of Tolerance 
How much of an abiotic factor an organism can withstand
Limiting Factor

Factor that is holding back a population aquatic limiting factor

 

ex. O2, light, temperature  

Soil horizons
Zones within soil
Soil profile
Cross-section view of soil
O Horizon
Surface litter
A Horizon

Top soil (clay, silt, sand)

 

Dark Soil: rich in nutrients 

Poor Soil: yellow, red, unhealthy 

Loam
equal parts of sand, silt, and clay
Leaching
Dissolving and carrying nutrients (or pollutants) through soil into lower layers
B Horizon
Subsoil, mostly broken down rock
C parent
material broken down, bedrock
Texture
Relative amount of sand, silt, and clay
Porosity
Volume of pore space
Permability
The ability of water to go through soil
Clay
high porosity, low permability 
Sand
high permability, low porosity
Sheet

Uniform loss water crosses a flat field

 

Water erosion 

Rill

Fast flowing water

 

Water erosion

Gully

channel becomes wider and deepers

 

Water erosion

Conservation Tillage (no till farming)
Disturb the soil as little as possible 
Terracing
Making flat growing areas on hillsides
Contour Farming
Planting crops perpindicular to the hill slope
Strip Cropping

Planting alternating rows of crops

-legumes

-carrots

-legumes

Alley cropping
planting crops between rows of trees
Gully Reclamation
Fast growing native grasses slows erosion
Windbreaks
Trees planted around open land
Inorganic (synthetic) fertilizers

requires large amounts of energy for production. Releases nitrous oxide (N2O)

 

-no humus

Organic  fertilizers
the odor is a problem. slow release of nutrients
Green manure
compost
Crop Rotation
allows nutrients to return to soil
Ecology
study of interaction between organisms and their living/non-living environment
Biotic
Living
Abiotic

Nonliving

 

ex. temperature, sun

Lithosphere
Rock layer, upper mantle and crust
Hydrosphere
Water layer
Atmosphere
Gas layer
Troposphere
Closest to earth
Stratosphere
Ozone
Biosphere
Life
Biomes
Large regions characterized by a distinct climate and adapted vegetation 
Ecotones
A blending of biomes bear their boundaries 
Ecosystem
Biotic/abiotic components of a particular place
Community
all interacting organisms living in an area
Population
Includes members of the same species
Known Species

1.8 million; estimated 5-100 million species exist.

 

mostly bacteria and insect

Producers

Autotrophs

 

Make their own food thrugh photosynthesis or chemosynthesis

Consumers

Heterotrophs

 

can’t make their own food, have to consume other organisms

Herbivores
Eat producers. Primary consumers
Carnivores

Secondary consumers

;

feed on primary consumers (herbivores)

Omnivores
eat both producers and consumers
Tertiary
Shark eats a fish that ate a fish that ate kelp
Detrivore
Feed on parts of dead animals
Scavengers
Feed on dead organisms they did not kill, but found dead
Decomposers
bacteria and fungi that break down dead tissues
Food chain

single path of feeding relationships

;

grass-;mouse-;hawk-;hawk dies

Food Web

inter related;food chains

;

arrow goes to person getting energy

Solar Energy

Evaporates waer, generates wind, supports plant growth

;

42%- heats earth and atmospheres

;1% photosynthesis

1% wind

34% Reflected from clouds

23%

Greenhouse Glasses
H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3
Photosynthesis
CO2 and water are converted into glucose and oxygen;
Aerobic Respiration

break down carbohydrates to obtain the energy;

requires the presence of O2

Anaerobic Respiration

Fermentation

;

get energy by breaking down glucose in absence of O2

Biomass

Organic matter. Can br produced by producers (synthesis)

-dry weight

GPP (Gross primary production)
Rate that producers convert solar energy into chemical energy
NPP (Net primary production)

GPP-R

;

Energy output of an area of producers over a given time

;

R= Respiration

3 Most Productive

;

3 Least Productive

Most: Swamps/Marshlands, tropical rainforest, estuaries

Least: Tundra, desert scrub, extreme desert, open ocean

HIPPO

H:;Habitat destruction ; degredation

I:;Invasive species

P:;Polluation

P: Human population growth

O: Over exploitation

Trophic Levels- Feeding Levels

1st: Trophic Level- Plants

2nd: Trophic Level- Primary consumers

3rd: Trophic Level- Secondary consumers

4th: Trophic Level- Tertiary consumers

What sustains life?
Solar energy, gravity, cycling of matter
What are the main causes of soil erosion?

Mainly water and wind.

;

Human: construction, off roading, tilling, mining, etc

Global Soil Loss?
Lost about 15% of land for agriculture due to soil erosion
Desertification;

Turning productive (fertile) soil into less productive soil

-overgrazing

-desforestation

Salination
Fields must be repeatedly flushed with fresh water to remove salt build up
Water Logging

Plants are over saturated

reducing yield

Sulfur Cycle

SO2 ( volcanos)

Burning coal

Comes out of decaying material

Reacts in atmosphere to create hydrogen sulfate (H2SO4), sulfuric acid (acid rain)

;

Human Effects: refining sulfur containing petrol

Phosphorus Cycle

Very slow

Limiting factor for plant growth

Mine phosphate out of rock and add it to fertilizers and detergents

;

Human Effects

We add excess phosphates from runoff of animal wastes and fertilizers

Dead Zone (Anoxic Zones)

Anoxic: no O2

;

Nutrients cause an algal bloom ;– lots of algae

Too much algae grows on the surface; it blocks out lights, plants die

Then algae start to die and start to decompose

Bacteria that do decomposition require O2

O2 runs out, dish die, the plants are dead

Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen in air (N2)

N2 fixation by bacteria to ammonia

Nitrification by bacteria to nitrate (NO2-)

Then to Nitrate (NO3-)

Denitrification of nitrate (NO3-) by bacteria

back into Nitrogen Gas (N2) Atmosphere

 

Effects of Humans

Adding Nitrous Oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere can warm the atmosphere

contaminate groun water from nitrate ions in inorganic fertilizers

Legumes
Contains N2 ficing bacteria in their roots that can provide nitrates for the plants
Carbon Cycle

Atmosphere (CO2)

Photosynthesis/respiration

Limestone (CaCO3)

 

Effects from humans

Burning fossil fuels

clearing vegetation

Water Cycle (Hydrologic Cycle)

Evaporation/transpiration-> plant sweating

Condensation

Precipitation

Infiltration-> enters soil

Percolation -> H2O moves through soil

 

Effects of Human 

Withdrawing large amounts of fresh water

Polluting surfance and underground water

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