enviro policy washu final
common pool resources
not excluded but are subtracted
hybrid problem:
1) provision problem–>who pays cost of building a dam/maintaining it [public goods]
2) allocation problem–>how big to make a reservoir, etc. [private goods]
toll goods
excluded but not subtracted
externality
something external to the cost of production that effects someone else
transaction cost
everything BUT the cost of production: cost of organization, seeking out partners, info gathering, etc.
two realms of natural resource competition
over resource “use” like drilling vs. grazing
over resource appropriation” like who gets how much
Santa Barbara Oil Spill 1969
3rd largest US oil spill [1st at the time]
flood waters inland had pushed slick out to sea, major storm hits, pushing slick inland
coast saturated–>major media story
OPEC Oil Embargo 1973
OPEC announces plan to raise prices by 70%, oil depreciation, political opposition to US support of Israel
overt embargo on US
political response: achieve energy independence, increase mass transit, lower highway speeds, increase research into renewable fuels, price rationing, department of energy
environmental consequences: agenda setting, smaller cars, search for renewable funds
Trans-Alaskan Pipeline Controversy 1970s
problems: permafrost, native claims, NEPA [environmental impact statement disputed, courts eventually allow them though/stop project b/c violates mineral leasing act]
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act ANSCA
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act ANSCA
[trans-alaskan pipeline controversy]a. Native claims to land abrogated in exchange for 1/9 Alaskan land, ~1 billion [1/2 from fed government, ? from oil revenues], no further development of resources on federal lands until formally dealt w/ by Congress
Alaskan statehood allowed on condition limited amount of land area granted to state; remainder to federal government
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
scientific body that issues timely reports
assesses scientific info on human induced climate change, impacts of human induced climate change, options for adaptation and mitigation, works w/ UNFCCC
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC
earth summit in rio de janeiro w/ 172 countries
passed UN framework convention on climate change, passed US convention on biological diversity and convention to combat desertification
broad institutional design for international governance of climate-change issues: stabilize GHG levels/measure GHG levels to set baseline
annex 1 nations
developed, industrialized countries; onus of reducing emissions; subsidize developing nations w/ technology and funs
Byrd-Hagel resolution
Byrd-Hagel resolution said it was not the sense of the Senate that the US should be a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol
COP Conference of Parties
signatories to UNFCCC, meet annually
kyoto protocol
mandated annex 1 GHG reductions
via international emissions trading like “carbon markets”, assigned amount units [AAUs] which indicate amount of emissions permissible, removal units [RMUS] from land use change like reforestation, emission reduction units ERUs and certified emission reductions CERs
CDM Clean development mechanism
a. Credit for financing clean energy projects/emission reduction projects for non Annex-1 countries: must be above what would have already happen, create asset out of emissions quantify externalities, designated national authorities
executive board: MVR monitoring, verification, accounting
lacks: ex ante monitoring, land tenure recognition, nested enterprise, forestry preserves
REDD+ Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation
in developing countries
MRV monitoring, reporting, verification
goals of sustainable development/GHG reductions
political/institutional: national level property rights protection/accounting, national/subnational MRV, sub national level ownership/monitoring
sustainable development
make sure there are enough resources available in future to meet future’s needs, don’t take everything now make sure stuff is left for tomorrow
three factors:
environmental sustainability
political legitimacy
economic development
Samaritan’s dilemma
when presented w/ charity, people either use to to improve situation or take advantage/rely on it
Environmental justice
i. Definition: Fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income w/ respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies
normative [what should] but also measures what is [positive]
Warren County, NC
[environmental justice] county in NC, poorest, hella black people
state plan to build toxic dump to deal w/ contaminated soil
not a scientifically “good” site for PCB disposal: poor soil permeability, 5-7 feet above groundwater
failed lawsuits lead to leaks, contaminated drinking water
merging of environmental/civil rights movements
Dudley Street Neighborhood
brownfields
lack of services, politically unconnected, city focuses more on downtown Boston, collective action dilemmas
54+ undocumented hazardous waste sites, 2 of 5 illegal trash transfer stations, lots of garbage/broad daylight dumping
Nelson Merced: wanted to change things w/ help of Riley Foundation
DSNI Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative
DSNI Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative
initial assessment: focus on core area of neighborhood and move outward, establish advisory group, recast vacant lots as potential instead of liabilities
successes: community-led, bottom-up initiative with lots of community support
trash problems, abandoned cars were both taken care of
illegal trash transfer stations’ entrances were blocked to keep trucks from returning, lots of media coverage
neighborhood rejuvenation, seeks solution to enviro justice problem, increased ownership stake in neighborhood, redeveloped land
endangered species act
authorizes the determination and listing of species as “endangered” and “threatened”
prohibits unauthorized taking, possession, sale, and transport of endangered species
provides authority to acquire land for the conservation of listed species, using land and water conservation funds
authorizes establishment of cooperative agreements and grants-in-aid to states that establish and maintain active and adequate programs for endangered and threatened wildlife and plants
authorizes assessment of civil and criminal penalties for violating the act or regulations
authorizes payment of rewards to anyone furnishing information leading to arrest and conviction for any violation of the act or any regulation issued thereunder [FWS]
endangered species listings requirements
endangered due to following 5 factors:

Present/threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of habitat range
Overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, educational purposes
Disease/predation
Inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms
Other natural/manmade factors impacting its continued existence
implications of listing: private property and takings; critical habitat

markets vs. planning
markets: prices of transportation/housing/etc determined by demand, markets clearing–>prices converge at socially efficient mix of housing/transportation/etc
planning: markets distort true social preferences, prices subsidized/unrealized
extensive vs. intensive agriculture
extensive: smaller input costs/wide pasture for animals BUT low yields, large swaths of land required
intensive: high yields per area, lower land requirements
environmental consequences: use of pesticides, herbicides, nitrates
pro–>feeds more people
cons–>environmental effects/tolerance to these
Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act
section 1002: senate version allows for resource exploration in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge but house version does not
huge stakes of money involved
compromise in committee: push off decision formed ANILCA–>Designates land for national parks etc.
section 1002 species congress as sole authorizer of development of ANWR coastal slope
earth day/NEPA 1970
NEPA- national environmental policy act that established us national policy promoting enhancement of environment & established CEQ, president’s council on environmental quality (1970)
1970, showed growing appreciation for earth day- environment- more public support means more policy development
deepwater horizon
over shore drilling explosion where 11/126 crew were killed
largest oil spill of US history

consequences-immediate gulf coast moratorium
VA nixed by Obama
economic consequences
collapse of Gulf Coast fishing industry

punctuated equilibrium
predicts that a lot of evolutionary change takes place in short periods of time tied to speciation events
gulf war
The Gulf War was one of the most environmentally devastating wars ever fought. Iraq dumped approximately one million tons of crude oil into the Persian Gulf, thereby causing the largest oil spill in history (see environmental disasters). Approximately 25,000 migratory birds were killed. Crude oil was also spilled into the desert, forming oil lakes covering 50 square kilometres. In due time the oil percolated into groundwater aquifers
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