Environ. Science

Maximum Sustainable Yield

the largest amount of harvesting which allows ecosystems/species to replenish itself before the next harvest

Totally Allowable Catch (TAC) 
In fisheries management, a yearly quota set for the harvest of a species by managers of fisheries
Individual quota 
A system of fishery management wherein a quota is set &  individual fishers are given or sold the right to harvest some proportion of the quota. also called catch shares 
Natural goods
the food, fuel, wood, fibers, oils, alcohols, & the like derived from the natural world, on which the world economy and human well-being depend
Natural services
functions performed free of charged by natural ecosystems, such as control of runoff & erosion, absorption of nutrients, & assimilation of air pollutants
Natural Resources
features of natural ecosystems and species that are of economic value and that may be exploited. Also, features of particular segments of ecosystems, such as air, water, soil, and minerals
Renewable Resources
Biological resources, such as trees, that may be renewed by reporduction and regrowth. Conservation to prevent overcutting and to protect the enviroment is still required.
Conservation
The management of a resource in such a way as to asssure that it will continue to provide maximum benefit to humans over the long run.
Preservation
In protecting natural areas, the objective ofpreservation is to ensure the continuity of a species and ecosystems, reguardless of their potential utility
Consumptive use
The harvesting of natural resources in order to provide for peoples immediate needs for food, shelter, fuel, and clothing 
Productive use
The exploition of ecosystems resources for economic gain
Optimal population
The population of a harvested biological resource that yields the greatest harvest for exploitation; according to maximum-sustained-yeild equations, the optimal population is half the carrying capacity. 
Precautionary principle 
the principle that says that where are threats of serious or irrreversible damage, the absense of scientific certainy shall not be used as a reason for post-poning cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degration.
Commons
resources owned by many people in common or, as in the case of the air or open oceans, owned by no one but open to the exploitation 
ecosystem management 
the management paradigm, adopted by all federal agencies managing public lands, that invovles a longterm stewardship approach to maintaining the lands in their natural state.
Ecosystem Capital 
The sum of goods and services provided by natural and managed ecosystems, both free of charge and essential to human life and well-being
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