Environmental
most regions of the world have been getting _____ food
more
food production in the 20th century has _______ population growth
outpaced
problems of undernourishment and starvation have to deal with ______ and ____ not food production
poverty and distribution
amount of people predicted for 2050
9 billion
this is expected to increase even when the population growth levels off
affluence
as affluence increases this also increases
per capita food consumption
as affluence increases this also increases
per capita food consumption
5 ways to produce the amount of food that is going to be needed in the future?
1. cultivate new land 2. increase production limits (manipulate crops to increase the production per acre) 3. reducing waste of food 4. changing diets 5. expanding aquaculture
how could we cultivate new lands?
cultivate “land reserves”
increase production limits
manipulate crops to increase the production per acre
green revolution produced
high yield variets of food (corn, wheat, and rice) through selective breeding
modern genetic techniques may allow for production of varieties that will
yield well in challenging environments
selective breeding
cross breeding until you get best combination of desirable traits (genes)
through breeding more photosynthate can get to
edible portions of plant
modern wheat, corn, and rice receive ___% of photosynthate
50%
acres of most U.S. crops have been on a linear
upward trend
a series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives, occuring between 1940 and 1970 led to this
increase agriculture production around the world
positives created by green revolution
1. in 35 years food production doubled 2. held back deforestation
drawbacks of the green revolution
1. crops now require energy intensive irrigation, fertilizer, and pesticides 2. high cost tends to benefit large land owners 3. loss of genetic diversity
technique of biotechnology (steps to get GMO)
1.identify and sequence genes that do something you want 2. insert copies of genes into geonome of another species that lacks capability 3. the genetically modified organism expresses new traits
technique of biotechnology (steps to get GMO)
1.identify and sequence genes that do something you want 2. insert copies of genes into geonome of another species that lacks capability 3. the genetically modified organism expresses new traits
Transforming species to get GMO’s requires these three things
1. money 2. equipment 3. brainpower
4 aims of genetic modification
1. resistance to disease and pests 2. tolerance of environmental conditions 3. nutritional value 4. pharmaceutical value
3 environmental benefits of genetic modification
1. reduction in use of pesticides 2.less erosion 3. less damage because of reduced demand for additional farmland
3 environmental concerns of genetic modification
1. pest resistance 2. effects on non-target organisms 3. gene flow to weed species
Epidemiological concerns of GMOs
1. allergice responses 2. will host plants produce toxins in response to inserted genes
economic concern of GMOs
expensive
psychological concern from GMO’s
aversion to new technology and resistance to adoption
globally around ___% of food is lost to waste
30-40
in developing world food loss is due to
food chain infastructure (india no refrigeration)
in developed world food loss is due to these 3 reasons
1. picky consumers (throw out blemished food) 2. super sizing 3. fear of litigation and conservative use by dates
aquaculture currently provides people with __% of animal protein intake
15%
4 things that will lead to expanding aquaculture
improvements in technology 2. better stock selection 3. economy of scale 4. open aquaculture
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