Environmental Geology 3
Tephra
Anything blasted into the air from a volcano
Bombs
Large rock fragments blasted from a volcano
Eruption column
Column of ash right above volcano
Fumaroles
Cracks in the ground through which gases reach the surface
High silica lava
high viscosity, andesitic/rhyolitic
Low silica lava
Low viscosity, basaltic
Maars
Tuff-cones
Tuff Cones
Shallow, flat floored craters that form as a result of violent expansion of magmatic gas or steam
Strombolian eruptions
Huge clots of lava burst from the summit crater to create luminous arcs. (Hundreds of feet)
Vulcanian eruptions
Eruption columns go into the sky (Thousands of feet)
Plinian Eruption
Eruption column goes thousands of feet into the air (Mushroom cloud)
Chile Earthquake
9.5 mag, 10 minutes of shaking, fault displacement of 1000 kms, tsunami
San Francisco Earthquake
7.8 mag, elastic rebound theory, caused massive fire
Tangshan, China Earthquake
7.5 mag, was predicted, strange animal activity
Tohoku, Japan Earthquake
9.0 Mag, 517 aftershocks, Earth shifted on axis, Largest plate shift ever recorded, damaged nuclear power plant
Kobe, Japan Earthquake
Built on reclaimed land, liquifaction
Lisbon, Portugal
Fires, 8.7Earthquake, Tsunami, triggered religious change
Haiti & Chile
8.7 and 7.0 Mag, most deaths in Earthquake, Cholera outbreak
Mount Pinatubo
Composite, Plinian, caused drop in global climate, 20 million tons of sulphur dioxide
Haimaey,Iceland
On the Mid atlantic ridge, fissure eruption, lava flows for 6 months, lava flow was diverted
Santorini, Greece
Rhyodacite, Plinian, took place in a Chaldera but created a larger chaldera, Atlantis, Ash cloud as far as China
Mount St Helens
Earthquake caused landslide on north face, Landslide caused eruption, Plinian, exploded laterally, Andesite, most economically destructive volcano
Krakatau
Plinian, Composite, ruptured eardrums 40 miles away, pyroclastic flow, high pressure sound wave that circumnavigated the globe five times.
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