Environmental Health 150 B
RCRA 1976
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-created sanitary landfills, subtitle D, led to practices to reduce Municipal Solid Waste. subtitle C estabished system for controlling hazardous waste from generation to disposal. Address dangers of improper storage and conservation of energy and resources.
1.tracking of hazardous waste
2. accurate record keeping-list hazardous chemicals in CFR, something doesn’t have to be listed to be toxic hazardous, if it demonstrates ignitability, corrosivity, toxicity, or reactivity
3. Conservation of valuable energy and resources
MSW
municipal solid waste i.e. paper, glass, plastic, metal, wood, food scraps, yard trimmings from households, offices, hospitals, prisons, commercial industry.
has been steadily increasing from 60’s-90’s but has leveled of in the 90’s.
WTE
Waste-to Energy i.e. combustion w/ energy produced.
If energy not harnessed called incineration
hazardous waste
anything that may pose a substantial threat or potential danger to human health. Requires a cradle-to-grave analysis. Ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, toxicity.
TSD
treatment, storage, and disposal facilities
HSWA
Hazardous and Solid WAste Amendments made to RCRA in 1984. Focus on protecting groundwater
hazardous waste can be minimized by…
1. eliminating or substituting raw materials for less hazardous ones
2. changing the manufacturing process to decrease or eliminate hazardous waste
3. separate or segregate from non-hazardous material as to not further contaminate or spread it
source reduction
reducing the amount of toxicity of wastes prior to entering the waste stream i.e. products package reuse, redesign that reduces material or toxicity or modifying practices
resource recovery
recycling; removing materials from the MSW to convert to productive use.
reduces need for virgin materials, reduces pollution, saves energy
MRFs
materials recycling facilities, use a magnet and filter objects manually.
cullet
glass bottles ground down into smooth pellets
composting
using microorganisms to degrade organic matter while increasing temp. to kill most pathogens, good for conditioning soil, even though the are nutrient-low, by improving porosity and aeration which increases water retention.
can be via shredder, in-vessel, or windrow process.
use bound to increase as education increases.
sound
any form of energy that is produced by any vibration of objects which compress and expand air, water or solids to produce waves.
Only a pollutant when exceeds a certain amplitude, measured in decibels.
After enters ear, tympanic membrane>malleus>incus>stapes>choclea.
Hearing loss
PTS (permanent) or TTS (temporary) Threshold Shift so that anything less than that decibel cannot be heard. Caused by excessive sound pressures destroying cilia
permissible sound level
set by the Dept of Labor as 90dBA for 8 hr day, 40 hr week=OEL, no PEL but some communities regulated
radiation
energy released from the decomposition of radioisotopes either electromagnetic or alpha or beta particles
ionizing radiation
capable of removing an electron from an atom so that it carries a charge.
Very hazardous within the body: radiation sickness=CNS, GI tract and bone marrow damage, and increased rick of leukemia, breast, thyroid, ovarian, bladder, lung, colon, liver, stomach, nonmelanoma skin cancer.
Can be natural or human generated or enhanced. Over half caused by radon.
Natural sources account for 82% of total: 1. radon 2. internal 3. terrestrial, 4. cosmic
Radon and daughters
2nd leading cause of cancer! enters house from water to bed rock to soil which can be tracked in or penetrate the walls.
decays from uranium and into….
Polonium 218, Lead 214, Bismuth 214, Polonium 214, Lead 210=stable isotope.
Greatly increase risk of lung cancer. Causes from 5,000-20,00 excess cases.
Found in high concentrations in the Midwest and in very low concentrations in Western Coast, Texas and Florida.
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
proposes the official federal standards, PEL’s.
decided upon by the Supreme Court based on risk and feasibility.
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency
nuclear power
potential radiation exposure. no air pollution, more energy yield.
fossil fuels
cheaper, no long-lived radioactive waste, contributes most to global warming
regulation of nuclear activity
Energy Reorganization Act>Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Waste Policy Act, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy.
nonionizing radiation
any electromagnetic radiation with energy less than xrays. still dangerous in that they can heat tissues and damage genetic material (cancer)
i.e. microwave, radio, UV rays, laser pointer
UV radiation
nonionizing, is hazardous to skin cells, damage DNA, skin cancer but needed to synthesize vitamin D and has germicidal effects.
sources of Indoor Air Pollution
combustion!, radon gas from soil, volatile chemicals from water supplies, building materials, furniture and electronic equipment, outdoor pollutants
effects of IAP
asthma, heart disease, dx impairment, neurological diseases, reproductive health concerns, cancer, autoimmune diseases.
Can cause acute lower respiratory infections which are the largest cause of death for children 5 yrs or younger.
VOC
volatile organic compound (ex. radon), source concentration in water supply, transferred to air, proximity (very close to shower head when exposed) high in the bathroom.
building materials
structural materials, wallboard, adhesive, paints, sealants.
Leech potentially harmful chemicals i.e. Formaldehyde in FEMA trailers
furniture and electronics
glues and sealants, fabrics, carpets, flame retardants, and electronics.
Brominated chemicals. Ultra fine particles and other chemicals. Less ventilation.
outdoor air concentrations effect on indoor air quality
size of particles and their distribution, operations of building, available loss mechanisms
Intake Fraction
iF=Intake Rate/Emission
=(Concentration in Air x Breathing Rate)/Emission
=Breathing Rate/Ventilation Rate

Because: IR=Ca x BR and Ca=E/V

ways to improve IAQ
increase ventilation, select better building materials, and green home products.
TLV
type of Occupational Exposure Limit, unofficial.

Threshold Limit Values, set by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. ACGIH. Time weighted based on conventional hours. Based on past workplace exposures, historically set 2-5x higher than they should be. 14-17% ppl show adverse effects at or below these levels.

PEL
type of OEL, standards, must be enforced.

Permissible Exposure Limits, as set by Occupational Safety and Health Act. must demonstrate significant risk>1/1000, set at lowest technically and economically feasible level.

CERCLA
Superfund. Find, Prioritize, and Clean. ID sites contaminated w/ hazardous substances, responsible parties held accountable, and set priorities for cleanup.
Established Strict Liability, Joint and Several Liability, and Retroactive Liability.
Established hazard ranking system.
SARA a response to charges RCRA wasn’t strict enough.
EPCRA
Emergency Planning and Community RIght-to-Know Amendment, increase public access to info about storage and use of hazardous chemicals
DOT
department of transportation regulates the movement of hazardous wastes
Pollution Prevention Act
source reduction, required to reach a certain level if found to have a certain level of toxic emissions
TSCA
Toxic Substance Control Act, mandates chemical manufactures keep data
FIRFA
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, collect and maintain info about pesticides while controlling their use.
CAA
Clean Air Act 1990 VII diff titles
CWA
clean water act, provides protection and propgation of underwater wildlife. Regulated runoff
Wingspread Meeting of 1991
introduced concept of endocrine disruption in animals, caused by chemicals released into the environment which results in hormonal changes.
key components of endocrine system
1. glands
2.hormones
3.receptors
endocrine disruptors
anything that interferes with the production or activity of endocrine hormones
i.e. pesticides, plasticizers, PCB’s, dioxin, phytoestrogen, Bisphenol A
take effect by: 1. mimicry which causes overstimulation 2. binding to receptor and blocking channel 3.interfering w/ hormone production or regulation
potential adverse effects of endocrine disruptors
reduced sperm counts, infertility, more male births (?), early puberty, increase in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular, breast and ovarian cancer, cryptochordism (undescended testes), thyroid disease. rates of occurrence greatly increasing, mainly dx’d nations.
exposure to EDC’s?
food supply! ingestion of contaminated grains and grasses>livestock or spraying fruits or leeching from plastics and containers
bisphenol A
-synthetic estrogen (similar to DES) capable of producing a wide range of endocrine effects even at low doses, rate of leeching can be increased by heat, very high or low pH.
-continually exposed to low doses, more than 6 bill produced and 100 tons released. widely used in the production of certain consumer goods: food storage containers, water bottles, glasses, med equipment, CDS, safety gear, bumpers, food can linings, dental sealants, types of coating. not plasticizers.
-main exposure=ingestion!
Stanford University Study
yeast study, unexplained content of estrogen from lab flasks leeching. activity observed in breast cancer cells, capable of being blocked by tamoxifen
Case Western Reserve University
high rate of chromosomal abnormalities in lab mice due to plastic cages, replicated in a controlled experiment.
biomonitoring of BPA
study urine, blood, breast milk, placental tissue, semen, etc.
-CDC found traces in 95% of samples taken. Estimated adult daily intake at 1 microgram/kg BW/day. Much higher in infants and small children. Within the range shown to have toxic effects in lab animals. correlates to icreased odds of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
RfD
Reference Dose, EPA’s reference of daily oral exposure that is likely to be w/out appreciable risk even to sensitive subpopulations.
**set at 50 micrograms/kgBW/day for BPA in 1988. established by a rat bioassay that showed no NOAEL but a LOAEL of 50 milligrams/kgBW/day. Since then studies have found effects FAR below this level.
effects of low dose exposure to BPA
precancerous lesions, changes in reproductive organ dx, weight, hormone concentration and receptor density, puberty, estrus cycle, sperm production, fertility, changes in brain morphology, bx, NT concentrations and receptors, decreased immunity to bacterial infections.
recent evaluations of BPA
Chapel Hill group: serious concern
CERHR: minimal and some concern, conflict of interest so eliminated 2 important studies, small sample, not Good Lab Practices (dx’d to prevent fraud in private industry but not required for govt and academic studies)
-eventually have begun to be phased out by manufactures, some pending and recently enacted legislation.
-may be no safe dose! particularly concerning for our children in that many of their products contain these materials.
criteria pollutant
worthy of regulation, EPA has decided, based on sufficient evidence (epidemiologic studies, controlled human exposure, animal toxicology) of health or welfare effects
i.e. lead, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone
oxidative stress
reactive oxygen species generated within body due to inhalation of certain pollutants.
antioxidants can provide defense for some by removing the damage components.
particles
dust and droplets suspended in the air, the smaller they are the more harmful they are b/c can get imbedded deeper, composition effects still unknown.
-coarse=>2.5 micrograms in diameter, come from mechanical processes, heavy mass, efficiently removed by gravity (hours-days), can potentially be filtered out by nasal passages
-fine=<2.5 micrograms, formed by coagulation of particles in nuclei mode, condensation of vapors and then grow in size, persist for days to weeks, mainly removed by precipitation. can be deeply embedded into lung tissue.sources
-ultrafine=<1.0 micrograms
anthropogenic sources of PM
Directly emitted:
1. fuel combustion
2. industrial production
3. non-industrial i.e. road dust
4.transportation
Secondary:
form in atmosphere through chemical reactions
why is air quality so bad in sonoma?
wind pattern blows in, gets trapped by mountain ranges
relative levels of PM
LA bad
ambient carbon particles
peak in the winter, but decreasing over time. natural logarithm of deaths attributed to this shows its only a serious consequence for at risk groups. “Harvesting Effect” i.e. children, pregnant women (LA’s Children Hospital Study)
Harvard 6-city study
prospective cohort study, followed 8,000+ ppl over 16 yrs, specific pollution monitors for this study, both fine and coarse particles, 10 micrograms/mg associated with 8% increase in all mortality. 2.5 micrograms/m3 also associated with deaths from these cancers, ACS found decrese life expectancy by 1.5 yrs.
ACS study
half mil ppl in 151 cities PM 2.5 and sulfate and cardiopulmonary mortality and lung cancer
WHO air quality guidelines
20 micrograms/m3 for PM 10 and 10 micrograms/m3 for PM 2.5 are the lowest levels shown to increase risk for cp and lung cancer.
Attempts to get that low will be futile.
stratospheric ozone
several miles out from ground level, protects from UV rays
tropospheric ozone
secondary pollutant, created by NO+VOC+sunlight
worst during morning rush hour. 50% of US pop resides in areas not in line with current EPA standards. Worst in LA and Houston, Mexico City
Exposure Assessment
primary tool of environmental health sciences to assess dose. IAP “measure ppl where they are”
effects of IAP
eye and nose irritation, dry throat, headache, fatigue, sinus congestion, shortness of breath, sneezing, dizziness, nausea, and asthma. Causal pathways for long term exposure very complicated and hard to id.
SBS
sick building syndrome=usually temporary discomfort, apparently linked to time spent indoors.
WHO assessment: 30% of new buildings subject to these complaints.
sources: inadequate ventilation, chemical contaminants both in and outdoors, biological contaminants.
where are ppl?
77% of the world is developing and most of these ppl spend their time in rural-indoor environments. In the 23% developed world, its mainly urban indoors.
dangers of cooking
woodsmoke carbon does not combust completely, leaving Products of Incomplete Combustion (very bad), usually happens in small environments with poor ventilation. 6-20% of the fuel carbon will be converted to toxic substances i.e. small particles, CO, NO2, hydrocarbons, chlorinated organics

For the India study, if no exposure between cook times, 805 micrograms/m^3, when typical air pollution standards are set 50-75 micrograms/m^3.
Only higher exposure concentration was being a sweeper.

Air Pollution Box Model
Concentration=Emission/Air Exchange Rate x Volume
**should be in grams/m^3.
Exposure Concentration
average concentration experienced by a group or person over a period of time.
acute lower respiratory disease
kills 2-3 million kids everywhere, leading cause of death usually pneumonia in dx’ing countries. Found to be 36% attributable fraction of deaths.
RESPIRE
Randomized exposure study of pollution indoors and respiratory effects. Compare stone open fire to chimney wood stove. Used little back packs, tubito.
solar radiation
energy that is absorbed by ground and radiated back as heat in infrared waves which is absorbed by gas and water vapor traps heat.
Green House Gases
Water vapor-not greatly affected by human activity
CO2-fossil fuels, land use changes, cement manufacturing
CH4- landfills, rice, livestock, waste management, fossil recovery. by weight, 72x more powerful than CO2 in producing instantaneous warming.
N2O nitrous oxide-fertilizer, planted N-fixers, combustion
ozone, chloroflourocarbons
aerosoles (can be heating and cooling)

main 3 influenced by human bx, increasing sig. since 1750, 20-fold increase in energy use.

Radiative forcing
can be natural-solar or volcanic- or anthropogenic.
CO2
can’t really be reduced, very long-lived green house gas. HEAVILY rising. Due to combustion of fossil fuels, burning of forests (double effect because it releases and removes a consumer), release of methane and nitrous oxide. need to find long-term storage methods to reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants.
Earth’s mean temperature
sensitive indicator of the state of the climate, small changes reflect big effects, i.e. evaporation and rainfall increase, more extreme rain events, glaciers retreating, sea ice shrinking, sea level rising (as predicted)
2005 hottest yr in 125 yr instrumental record. Last 50 yrs hottest in the last 6000 yrs. Doesn’t mean the whole is heating, parts are cooling too.
Ex. of global climate change
Greenland is melting, China’s rivers will begin to flood b/c the glaciers that feed them are melting, Arctic sea ice disappearing.
Causes sea level to rise
IPCC predictions
intergovernmental panel on climate change, observations have shown to be on the high side of their projections, bad for us. More floods, wildfires, hurricanes, coral reef death, and monsoons.
Adverse impacts of Climate Change
floods: increase everywhere except Oceania
fires: increase everywhere
ocean: becoming more acidic, effects fish and wildlife
cyclones: power increases along sea surface temp increases. Same trend with coral reef bleaching.
monsoons: decreasing which causes less moisture flow from South to North, leads to flooding in south china, drought in the north.
landslides: caused by flooding i.e. Cali
water: by end of century 50-90%
Concerns of climate change
ecosystem impacts: extinction threat, high for mammals.
economic impacts: agricultural productivity, cost of disaster
health impacts: direct=temp related death, air pollution related effects, indirect=water,food, vector, rodent borne diseases, effects of water and food supply shortage.
small-probability, large consequence events: increased likelihood of these events.
Assement pattern: 1. GHG emissions scenarios 2.GCM model, maps of future climate 3.Health impact model, estimate of each impact 4.conversion to GBD
distribution of health impacts
rich countries impose 500 x > than they receiver
poor countries receive >16 x what they impose

8000x difference.

Formaldehyde
important industrial chemical, high exposure levels worldwide and very poorly regulated in US. Classified as human carcinogen, associated w/ leukemia.
Recent scandals? victoria’s secret, FEMA trailers as high as 1.200 ppm.
Accounts for >5% of annual GNP. (very economically important) Used in tissues as bactericides, production of resins and plastics, insulation materials.
can cause a cross link btwn cytosine and lysine making it genotoxic. also causing chromosome damage which can decrease the number of progenitor cells cultured.
Exposure to FA
occupational: manufacturing and industries that utilize it.
environmental: auto, cig smoke, forest burning, etc
residential: off-gassing building materials, furniture, carpets, paper products

higher in the summer (heating increases leeching), higher in cities, indoor most significant source and can exceed occupational sources.

limits on FA
WHO recommends .08 ppm for indoor. ASIGH:TLV in US is .3 ppm, no PEL! OSHA: OEL .75 ppm has not changed since 1992 when it was proven that FA causes nasopharyngeal cancer.
IARC classification on FA
human carcinogen (group 1) causes nasopharyngeal cancer, if can be proved to be casually related to leukemia, much more would be done about it. strond epi evidence for this but limited bio understanding, no credible animal model
possible mechanisms for FA induced leukemia
traditional=targets bone marrow directly
alt 1=targets blood, stem, or progenitor cells
alt 2= targets pluripotent nasal/oral stem cells

should be studied by targeting specific cells, by applying biomarkers to molecular epidemiological studies.

Arsenic
naturally occurring metalloid that moves through the Earth’s crust into the groundwater via erosion, the dissolved arsenic moves into marine sediments and soil and can travel through food chain this way.

Can be inorganic (arsenate or arsenite-most toxic) or organic (simple methylated species or complex organoaresenicals arsenosugars) based on oxidation states. +5, +3,0, -3.

primarily ingested but can be inhaled or absorbed as well. can cause cancer of skin, bladder, lung and kidney, is an established carcinogen, and pigmentation changes.

Cancer risk 100x greater than any other drinking contaminant.

As mechanisms of toxicity
tumor enhancer, causes oxidative stress, induces cellular hyperproliferation and inhibits DNA repair, genotoxicity, gene amplification, transformation, oxidative stress, cell proliferation.
ASR Technology
aquifer storage and recovery, way of accessing uderground water sources, storage, resource conservation, but unexpected release of arsenic.
1. California, Florida, and other parts of US
2. Can hydraulically control contaminant plumes
3. has INjection and Recollection Phase
4. can contaminate ground water with As if present
Algae as bioindicator of As level
biomonitor to determine how much accumulated, primary producers impact higher trophic levels.
arsenate
As species that is the analog of phosphate
Arsenobetaine
highest in seafood
arsenosugars
predominant in algea, best for monitoring is brown.
Asthma
chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, associated with hyperresponsiveness that leads to recurrent episodes of wheezing and breathlessness.
several phenotypes (allergic v. nonallergic) common in children based on maternal bx and atopy.
increasing recently. leading cause of chronic disease in children, costs $500 mil for treatment annually. Why increasing? Western lifestyle, hygiene and obesity, AA kids at greatest risk for morbidity due to SES that creates other health issues.
risk factors for asthma
smoking, age, sex, race, genes, socioeconomic status, obesity, occupation, outdoor and indoor environments, infections
landfills by region
Southeast has the greatest number of landfills
internal hazard
i.e. alpha, beta, gamma radiation.
within the body, has a very small penetration range but very high energy and thus can effect cell function of a few local cells that then mutate and metastasize.
brominated compounds
used in flame retardants in furniture, carpets, and electronics, source of indoor air pollution.
includes PBDE’s, tetrabromobishpenol-A, hexabromocyclododecane.
making a new law
very difficult, 90% of bills fail at subcommittee for review and support, after already being introduced into House and Senate
benzene
OSHA set PEL at 1 ppm, based on risk and feasibility.
Any lower would not be feasible for petrochemicals and coke and coal chemicals industrial sectors. But even new level shows a 10/1000 increased risk of leukemia.
solid waste disposal amendment to RCRA
requires tracking through uniform hazardous waste manifest, proper labeling, and accurate recording keeping
transportation of hazardous materials
UN sets recommendations for packaging, construction requirements, and labeling, not transportation vehicles.
ambient air pollution
health effects evaluated by epi studies, controlled human studies and animal tox studies
wetlands
largest natural source of methane emissions (animals contribute the most to anthropogenic methane emissions)
feedback loops of warming
snow melting>more sun light absorbed (less reflected)>more warming
more evaporation>more clouds>less warming

net effect depends on location and timing.

carbon emissions uptake
about equal between terrestrial and oceanic ecosystem, almost double taken up by and stored in atmosphere.
net effect of aerosols and ghg’s
cooler than the net affect of ghg but warmer than net affect of aerosoles
most used fuel?
oil!! fossil fuels
current extinction rate?
1000 times higher than in distant fossil record
IAP v. climate change?
IAP greater attributable risk. more direct relationship easier to contol.
climate is…
the averages and extremes of hot/cold, wet/dry, snowpack and melt, winds and storm tracks, ocean currents and upwelling. when, how much and where!
natural debt
cumulative amount of emissions per capita from past activity minus the amount removed by natural processes.
remediation of As
an be reduced by planting metalloid hyperaccumulating ferns, utilizing membrane filtration, installing dug wells, **not boiling.
can be done on a household scale. difficult and costly. can be attained by using deeper wells.
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