Environmental Remediation- Unit 3
Decision Making Process Steps (7)
1. Overall Goal
2. Principle
3. Preliminary Remediation Goals
4. Remedial Action Objectives
5. Remedial Action Alternatives
6. Remedy Selection Decision
7. Remedial Action
Overall Goal Concept
Ensure protection of public health and the environment by (1) characterizing the contamination as fully as possible, and (2) providing the least expensive yet technically sound method for mitigation
Principle of Remediation- [aka how do we do it (3)]
1. Source Removal
2. Pathway Disruption
3. Receptor Relocation
Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs)
Initial cleanup goals usually expressed in terms of the amount or concentration of the contaminants that may be considered acceptable
ARAR stands for
Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirement
Remedial Action Alternatives are evaluated based on what criteria? (8)
1. Effectiveness
2. Reduction of Toxicity, Volume, Mobility
3. Implementability
4. Cost
5. Compliance with ARARs
6. Protection of Human Health and Environment
7. Future Use
8. Acceptability
What Makes an Environmental Emergency? (4)
1. Severity
2. Immediacy/Time
3. Injuries/Fatalities
4. Public Disaster
What are the steps in Response Approach? (5)
1. Get information
2. Figure out danger
3. Protect Self
4. Rescue
5. Control and Stabilize
What are the questions (3) that need to be asked when revitalizing a site?
1. What’s it going to be used for?
2. Does the remediation fit the use?
3. How is liability protected?
Types of Source Removal and Isolation (3)
1. Soil Excavation
2. Landfilling
3. Incineration
Types of Pathway Disruption (2)
1. Slurry Wall/Grout Curtain
2. Cap and Contain
Types of In-Situ Treatment (7)
1. BioRemediation
2. PhytoRemediation
3. Soil Flushing
4. Thermal Treatment
5. Vitrification
6. Vapor Extraction with Air Sparging
7. Chemical Oxidation
Types of Ex-Situ Treatment (5)
1. Pump and Treat
2. Air Stripping (with Pump and Treat)
3. Chemical Fixation
4. Soil Washing/Solvent Extraction
5. Thermal Desorption
Types of Situational Categories (10)
1. Biothreats
2. Wood- Treatment Sites
3. Chemical and Manufacturing Facilites
4. Salvage Yeards
5. Buildings and Homes
6. Tire Fires
7. Gas Stations
8. Natural Disasters
9. Agricultural
10. Mining
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