Environmental Science

 

 

What is advection? 

 

the movement of water through the atmosphere 

 

What does BOD stand for? 

 

biological oxygen demand 

 

What percentage of water is used in the bathroom of a typical home? 

 

50% 

 

How many gallons of water are used in the U.S. each day? 

 

40 billion gallons 

 

What percentage of industrial water use is for cooling? 

 

90% 

 

What are the 5 horizons in soil profiling? 

 

1. O Horizon 

2. A Horizon

3. B Horizon

4. C Horizon

5. R Horizon 

 

What type of soil has

  • no drainage
  • no air capacity
  • high water capacity
  • high nutrient capacity 

 

clay 

 

What is loam? 

 

a mixture of soil that is suitable for growing plants 

 

At what precentage must ground cover be mainained at to prevent the detatchment of soil particles?

 

70% 

 

What number on the pH scale is both neutral and sweet?

 

7

 

What product is most commonly recycled?

 

paper

 

How many tons of trash are produced yearly in the US?

 

210 million tons

 

What is the difference between a dump and a landfill? 

 

A dump is a hole in the ground that is filled with trash

A landfill is a planned structure built into the ground that isolates the trash from the environment

 

What is the percentage of trash that is burned in the US?

 

16%

 

List two methods used to monitor ground water around a landfill.

 

1. test the water temperature

2. test the water pH level

 

List two advantages and two disadvantages to wind power

advantages:

1. wind is free

2. the wind turbine energy doesn’t cause pollution

;

disadvantages:

1. wind strength is not consistant (un-reliable)

2. wind turbines are noisy

;

What are three factors that affect the power output of a wind turbine?

;

1. wind speed

2. blade diameter

3. height of the wind turbine

;

What are groups of large turbines called?

;

wind farms or wind plants

;

What area of the US is most ideal for wind power use?

;

coastal areas

;

Name three government incentives to increase the use of wind power.

;

1. production tax credit

2. renewable energy credits

3. installation tax credits

;

What is the ‘capacity factor’?

;

the percentage of time a power plant is active

;

How much does geothermal energy production cost in the US per year?

;

$1.5 billioin

;

What is the temperature of the center of the earth?

;

6,000 degrees Celsius

;

How do some countries use geothermal energy?

;

for cooking and heating

;

Where does the name ‘geothermal’ come from?

;

two Greek words: ;geo; (earth) and ;thermal; (heat)

;

List two methods of soil conservation

;

1. soil erosion control

2. nutrient retention

;

What is bioenergy and how can it be used?

;

bionenergy is the use of organic material to produce energy such as heat, fuel, and electricity

;

What are three types of biomass?

;

1. municipal, animal, and industrial waste

2. soybeans, corn, sugar cane

3. wood chips ; saw dust

;

What are two advantages of using bioenergy?

;

1. bioenergy does not contribute to global warming

2. it reduces, reuses, and recylces biomass (environmentally friendly)

;

Up to what percentage of coal-energy can be replaced by bioenergy?

;

15%

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