Environmental science chapter 2 & 3
Environmental science
The study of the eviroment an dhownorganisms react to it
Matter
Anything that has mass
2 chemical forms of matters
Elements and compounds
Conservation of matter
When a physical or chemical change occurs, no atoms are created or destoryed.
Properties of pollutants
Degradable
Biodegradable
Slowly degradable
Non degradable
Energy
The ability to do work and transfer heat
What are the two forms of energy
Kinetic
Potential
High quality energy
Is concentrated and can perform much useful work.
Low quality
Is dispersed and has little ability to do useful work.
First law of thermodynamics
In a physical or chemical change, we can change energy from one form to anothe rbut we can neve create or destory any energy involoved.
Second law of energy
Whenevee energy changes from one form to another, wew alys end up with less usable energy that wwe had intially.
Matter-rrcycling-and-reuse
Mimics nature by reckycking and reusing most of our matter outputs instead of dumping thrm into the environment.
High-waste
Attemot to boost economic growth by increasing the one-way fkow of matter and energy resources through their economic systems.
Low waste
Building conceots of recycking and reusing as much matter as possiboe by also reducing the throughput of matter and enegy through an economy.
Persistance
A measure of how long the pollutant stays in the air, water, soil or body.
Heat
The total kinetic energy of all moving atoms, ions, or molecules within a given substsnce, excluding the oveerall motion.
Electromagnetic radiatn
Energy travels in the form of a wave as a rersult of the changes in electric and magnetic fields.
Energy efficiency
A measure of hoe much useful work is accompplished by a particular input of energy into a system.
Ecology
A study of connections in nature
What are he levels of organization of matter?
Organisms
Populations
Communities
Ecosystems
Biosphere
Name all biogeochemical cycles
Hydrolic
Nitrogen
Sulfur
Phosphorus
Carbon
Abiotic
Nonliving components such as water, air, nutrients and solar energy
Biotic
Living biological componets such as plants, animals, and microbes
Range of tolereance
The existance, abundance, and distribution of a species in an ecosystem are deteremined by whether the levels of one or more physical or chemical factors fall withing the range tolerated by that species
Limiting factor
To much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growt of a population , even if all the other factors are at or near the optimal range of tolerance.
Producers/Autotrophs
Self feeders
Consumers/ Hetertophs
Obtain eneregy and nutrientsby feeding on other organisms.
Photosynthesizers
Producers that capture sunlight tonmake complex compunds
Chemosynthesizers
More complex nutrients without sunlight
Difference between food web and food chain
Food chain makes up the food web
Pyramid
Illustrates this energy loss for a simple food chain
NPP
Net Primary productivity (NPP)-  the rate at which producers use photosynthesis to store energy minus the rate at which producers use some of the stored energy through aerobic respiration.
GPP
Gross primary productivity (GPP)- the rate at which an ecosystem’s producers convoy solar energy into chemical energy as biomass.
Jow do humans affect the cycles?
human processes
burning of plants
Mining
Cutting and burning trees
Habitat
The place where a population lives
Biological community
Consits of all the populatioins of different species and plants.
Biome
Biologist have classified the terresttrial portion of the biosphere.
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