What are three signs of progress regarding the environment?
Renewable energy, conservation of forests and nature preserves, population stabilized
What is sustainability?
a search for long term ecological stability and human progress.
What is sustainable development?
A real increase in well-being and standard of life for the average person that can be maintained over the long term without degrading the environment or compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
“meeting the needs of the present without c ompromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”
What are ecosystem services?
resources or services provided by environmental systems
a systematic, precise, objective study of a problem. generally requires observation, hypothesis development and testing, data gathering, and interpretation.
the scientific method
What is an example of an ecological service?
a measure of how likely something is to occur.
not what will happen, but what is likely to happen.
Anything that has mass and takes up space
What does matter consist of?
Elements and compounds
Unique properties that cannot be broken down chemically into other substances. example- gold, silver
two or more different elements bonded together in fixed proportions
ex- water (hydrogen and oxygen), carbon dioxide (carbon and oxygen)
The smallest unit of matter in which an element can be divided and still retain a chemical property.
What are atoms made of? What are their charges?
Protons- positive charge
Neutrons- no electrical charge
Electrons- negatively charged
Which subatomic particles give the atom mass and where are they located?
The proton and neutron and they are located in the atom’s nucleus
What is pH? What does it measure? What is the scale?
the negative logarithm of of its concentration of H+ ions
scale- 1 is battery acid- most acidic. , 14 is liquid drain cleaner- more basic. 7 is water.
alkaline solutions have a pH greater than 7
acids have a pH less than 7
two or more atoms of the same or different elements held together by chemical bonds
What is the Law of Conservation of Matter?
When matter undergoes a physical or chemical change, no atoms are created or destroyed.
Know the difference between kinetic and potential energy and an example of each
kinetic energy:Heat Transferred by radiation, conduction, or convection. example: electromagnetic radiation
potential energy:stored energy. a rock at the edge of a cliff
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed; Energy input always equals energy output
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
Energy always goes from a more useful to a less useful form when it changes from one form to another
a network of interdependent components and processes with materials and energy flowing from one component of the system to another.
what is a state variable?
(also called compartments),which store resources such as energy, matter, or water.
what are flows?
the pathways by which those resources move from one state variable to another.
What is the difference between a positive and negative feedback loop? Know an example of each.
A positive feedback loop tends to increase a process or component. • A negative feedback loop diminishes a process or component.
examples: positive- a pair of rabbits produces several baby rabbits, reproduction leads to bigger rabbit population
negative- if population growth goes out of control, starvation will reverse or slow this growth
what is a food web and the different trophic levels?
individual food chains that become interconnected
tertiary consumers (top carnivores)-lion
secondary consumers (carnivores)- aardvark
primary consumers (herbivores)-bugs grasshopper harvester ant
primary producers (autotrophs)-grass, trees
Where does photosynthesis occur?
what does photosynthesis rely on?
Chlorophyl and two interconnected reactions known as the light dependent and the light.
what is cellular respiration?
the reverse of photosynthesis.
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
6H20 +6CO2 +solar energy——>C6H12O6 (sugar) + 6O2
what is the equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6+6O2——–>6H2O + 6CO2 + released energy
process of the fittest individuals passing their traits to the next generation is called
a theory that explains how random changes in genetic material and competition for scarce resources cause species to change gradually.
what is resource partitioning?
when a species disappears or develops a new niche, exploiting resources differently
Competition for a limited quantity of resources occurs in all ecosystems. This competition can be interspecific or intraspecific. Explain some of the ways an organism might deal with these different types of competition
Interspecific- resource partitioning
intraspecific- direct fighting for resources, honing a species’ attributes
Describe and give an example of the three types of symbiotic relationships
Mutualism (+/+): both species clearly benefit . ex- lichens • Commensalism (+/0): one member benefits and the other apparently is neither benefited nor harmed. ex- types of mosses in the moist tropics • Parasitism (+/?): one partner benefits while the other is harmed (a type of predation).
The process in which species exert selective pressure on each other and gradually evolve new features or behaviors as a result of those pressures
species that depend on a high rate of reproduction and growth to secure a place in their environment.
r selected species. example: dandelion
organisms that produce more conservatively with longer generation times, late sexual maturity, and fewer young
k selected species. example: elephant
what is the equation for exponential growth? what does the graph look like?
n=number of individuals t= time r=rate of growth
what is the logistic growth model? what does it look like?
Describe the pattern of human population growth over the past 200 years. What is the shape of the growth curve?
“J” shape, increased
occurs when the birth rate equals the death rate (r ?0)