Environmental Science-Test 3
Weather
a description of short-term physical conditions of the atmosphere
Climate
a description of the long-term weather pattern in a particular area
Troposphere
where weather happens; ranges in depth from 18km over the equator to 5 km over the poles; air circulates in convection currents; air temperature drops rapidly with increasing altitude; contains 75% of total air mass
Tropopause
transition boundary limits mixing between the troposphere and upper zones
Stratosphere
protects us from sun (ozone); extends from troposphere to about 50km; similar composition to troposphere, but much more dilute; temperature increases with altitude; relatively calm; fraction of water vapor is 1000x less and ozone is 1000x more than in the troposphere
Mesosphere
middle layer; minimum temperature is about -80 degrees C
Thermosphere
ionized gases and high temperatures; ionosphere; aurora borealis
Ionosphere
lower thermosphere
Monsoon
Seasonal reversal of wind patterns caused by differential heating and cooling rates of oceans and continents; most prevalent in tropical countries where large land area is cut off from continental air masses by mountain ranges and surrounded by a large volume of water
Orographic Precipitation
when clouds flow across a land mass and drop all their moisture when they hit a tall land mass like a mountain
Albedo
reflectivity
Vertical Convection Cells
circulate air masses between warm and cooler latitudes
Coriolis Effect
surface flows do not move staight North and South, but are deflected due to _______
Tornados
local cyclonic storms caused by rapid mixing of cold, dry air and warm, wet air
Milankovitch Cycles
the natural causes of temperature change; periodic shifts in earth’s orbit and tilt; change distribution and intensity of sunlight reaching the Earth
El Nino
northern jet stream pulls moist air from the pacific over the U.S.; intense storms and heavy rains
La Nina
hot dry weather
Kyoto Protocol
160 nations agreed to roll back carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions about 5% below 1990 levels by 2012; set different limits for different countries, depending on prior output; developing countries exempted; we didn’t participate
Richer Countries
most common dietary problem is over-nutrition (obesity)
Sub-Saharan Africa
food production has not kept pace with rapid population growth
Asia
most rapid increase in crop production and this accompanied rapid population growth
Nitrogen
plant nutrient that is needed more than any other
Famine
large-scale food shortages, massive starvation, social disruption and economic chaos; usually connected with politics and natural disasters
Malnourishment
a nutritional imbalance caused by a lack of specific dietary components or an inability to utilize essential nutrients
Kwashiorkor
protein deficiency disease; “displaced child”; occurs mainly in children whose diets lack high quality protein
Marasmus
protein deficiency disorder; “to waste away”; caused by a diet low in both protein and calories
Iron Deficiency
Anemia; the most common dietary deficiency in the world and is the most severe in India
Iodine deficiency
causes goiter; hyperthyroidism
Soil
a complex mixture of weathered minerals, partially decomposed organic matter and a host of living organisms
Soil Profile
soils are stratified into horizontal layers called soil horizons and together they make up the ______
O Horizon (Organic Layer)
leaf litter; partially decomposed organisms
A Horizon (Topsoil)
mineral particles mixed with organic material
E Horizon (Leached)
depleted of soluble nutrients
B Horizon (Subsoil)
often dense texture from accumulating clay
C Horizon (Parent Material)
weathered rock fragments with little organic material
Blackbelt soil
made up on decomposed marine animals; high in nutrients; most fertile; mostly grasslands; sticky-high in clay
Series
Basic taxonomic unit of the soil
Soils of the coastal plains
low fertility; sandy; SE-peanuts; SW-vegetables and pecans; mostly pine trees and even a little tobacco
Soils of the Blackland Prairie
The Houston series
Soils of the Appalachian Plateau
The Hartsells series
Soils of the Valley and Ridge Soils
the Decatur series, the Townley series
Piedmont Soils
the Appling series, the Badin series
Soils of the Coastal Plains
the Bama series, the Bonneau series, the Boykin series, the Leon series, the Lucy series, the Mascotte series, and the Savannah series
Erosion
an important natural process, resulting in redistribution of the products of geologic weathering, and is part of both soil formation and soil loss
Sheet Erosion
thin, uniform layer of soil removed; water running off looks murky, doesn’t seem like a lot, but it is and it is the best part (topsoil)
Rill Erosion
small rivulets of running water gather together and cut small channels in the soil; can still cross with a piece of equipment
Gully Erosion
rills enlarge to form bigger channels too large to be removed by normal tillage; land is ruined for any productive purpose
Streambank Erosion
washing away of soil from established streambanks; happens when you take out trees
Green Revolution
the global spread of new, high-yield varieties of plants; “high responders” to optimum levels of fertilizer, water, pesticides, light, etc.; saved people of SE Asia
Genetic Engineering
the splicing of a gene from one organism into the chromosome of another
Sustainable Agriculture (Regenerative Farming)
goal is to produce food and fiber on a sustainable basis and to repair damage caused by destructive practices; soil is essential
Soil Conservation
land management, ground cover, climate, soil type, and tillage system are important elements in ___________
Contour
plowing and planting across slope to slow flow of water
Strip-farming
planing different crops in alternating strips along land contours
Terracing
shaping land to create level shelves of earth again with the slope to hold water and soil
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