Environmental Science Unit 3
Transpiration is the way plants
Return large amounts of water to the atmosphere
Natural evaporation processes are mainly driven by
solar energy
Water enters groundwater by
The amount of water in aquifers in the US is
over 30 times greater than all the surface water in the US
Withdrawl of groundwater often causes subsidence, a situatino where
porous rocks settle and ground level falls
Primary pollutants are those that are
Released directly in dangerous forms
___ are examples of secondary pollutants
Photochemical oxidants
Which criteria pollutants result mainly from burning coal?
Sulfer Dioxide
The most dangerous airborne particulates are those 
Small enough to be drawn into the lungs
Tall smokestacks were effective ways of 
displacing and dispersing pollution
Worldwide, coal deposits are
widespread and extensive
Under normal operating conditions ____ power plants release radioactivity as well as toxic metals
Coal fired
The main pollutant released by coal burning is
Sulfur oxides

oil wells are usually able to extract ___ of the petroleum present in an oil resevoir

___ is the most rapidly growing energy source
natural gas
the fuel used in a conventional PWR or BWR nuclear power plant is
Nuclear fission occurs when a high energy subatomic particle, a neutron, strikes a uranium atom, releases energy and
Releases neutrons
Nuclear waste storage in the US is currently handled
In temporary storage at individual plants
A breeder reacter is designed to
create fissionable plutonium from spent fission reactor fuel
The most likely disaster in a nuclear power plant is that 
Cooling systems could fail, causing rapid overheating
Energy efficiency is a measure of 
Energy produced compated to energy consumed
The idea of cogeneration is to actively use ____ electriciity generating plants
Both electricity and waste steam heat from
A glass greenhouse on the south side of a building is an example of
Passive heat absorption
Photovoltaic cells work because solar energy striking their surface
Releases electrons, causing an electric potential in attached wires
Since 1920s, hydropower production has 
Risen, but not as fast as fossil fuel use
Geothermal energy uses ____ to produce usable heat or electricity
Natually occuring hot groundwater

Which is not considered a fossil fuel?


-natural gas



-all of the above


Which of the following is true regarding fuel cell technology?

-They were first designed by NASA

-Must be recharded with an electrical outlet

-Only about 40-45% efficient

-Must receive a constant supply of water and oxygen

-a fuel cell stack providing all of the electricity for a typical home is not feasible because it would be too large

The are only 40-45% efficient
A system of pipes painted blackt hat have water circulating on the wall in a glass green house on the south side of a building is an example of 
an active solar heating system
The most effective technology developed so far to produce solar energy concentrated enough to run an industrail furnace or turnbine is to use 
Parabolic mirrors

In the US about 2/3 a ton of wate are generated for each person (inc children). Compared to the US, Japan and Europe generate about half that amount. One of the factors that probably does not contribute to this difference is:


That people in the US have a hgiher standard of lving than Europe and Japan
“Waste stream” is a term describing the
Steady production of all waste products that human produce
The “Great Pacific Garbage Patch”
Is an area of floating garbage roughly twice the size of Texas
If less developed countries can make money while more developed countries can rid themselves of waste, why would opponents be against exporting wastes to developing countries?

-Local people in the developing country probably do not know what is in the waste

-Poeple in the developing country may not have the resources to test for toxic materials in the waste

-The precitce can involve corrupt government officials who allow the wastes to be dumped illegally

The waste that is beign exported contains unwanted materials or it would not be exported

The main method for disposing of municipal wastes in the US is _____ while ____ is the main method in Japan






Landfilling; Recycling
Energy recovery is another term for ___ waste
Composting is a waste disposal method that
Vastly reduces total waste volumes
What are the ‘three Rs’ of waste disposal in descending order of energy expenditure
Recycle, Reuse, Reduce
Hazardous waste is anything that
Is toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, corrosive, or explosive
Secure landfills are those that
Are built like a bathtub with a lid
In economic terms, “demand” is how much of something 
People will buy at the current prices
In economic terms, “supply” is how much of something
Is available on the market
A(n) ____ relationship exists between supply and demand. Therefore, when supply is high, demand is ____.
inverse; low
Using supply-demand economics, what happens as the price of a good or service increases?
Demand falls and supply increases
Price inelasticity is when ____ while price elasticity is when _______.
Consumeres buy a product regardless of cost; the supply/demand curve is followed
Political economy theory incorporates ____ while neoclassical economic theory incorporates _____.
The issues of social structures and value systems; objectivity and scientific analysis
When we purchase a product, the price we pay directly reflects the ___ cost of producing it. If the manufacture of the product degrades the quality of air or water, then the cost of this pollution are termed ____ costs.
Internal; external
The management of a wild area by a group of indigenous people such as the management of wild rice beds is an example of 
A communal resource management system
In Limits to Growth the Club of Rome predicted that
Economic collapse is likely if we do not reduce population growth
An example of a market based incentive for environmental protection would be 
Fees placed on certain types or volumes of a pollutant
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