Environmental Studies, The Blue Planet, Chapter 7
Bedding
A banded appearance due to sediment being deposited in layers.
Biogenic Sediment
The resulting sediment from biochemical reactions in water.
Burial Metamorphism
The first stage of metamorphism to occur in rock after diagenesis.
Diagenesis
The various low-temp and low-pressure changes that happens to sediment after deposition.
Cementation
When loose particles of sediment are bonded together by a cementing material.
Chemical Sediment
Sediment formed when dissolved substances are transported in solution then precipitated.
Chemical Weathering
The decomposition of rocks and minerals as chemical reactions transform them into new chemical compounds that are stable at or near the Earth’s surface.
Clastic Sediment
Bits of broken rocks and minerals moved as solid particles.
Clay
One of the 4 main clasts. Finest.
Compaction
Under pressure (do do do dododo do). The first step in lithification.
Contact Metamorphism
When hot magma intrudes upon cooler rock, high chemicals cause reactions and recrystallization in the surrounding rock. Causes new minerals to grow.
Correlation
The determination of equivalence in age of the succession of strata found in multiple areas.
Crystalization
The set of processes whereby crystals nucleate and crow in cooling magma.
Denudation
The combined destructive effects of weathering, eroding, and mass wasting.
Deposition
Sediment accumulates in its new location as a result of deposition.
Erosion
A set of transport processes through wind, water, ice, etc.
Facies
A metamorphic concept which says that for a given range of temp and pressure, and for a given composition, the assemblage of minerals formed is always the same.
Foliation
A planar fabric or plane.
Geologic Timescale
A scale of numerical time applied to the geological column or relative ages.
Gravel
It’s gravel. Largest clastic sediment.
Igneous Rock
Rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of magma.
Joint
A sheet-like fracture in a rock.
Landslide
An avalanche of rock.
Lithification
The process by which sediment become rock.
Lithology
The general physical characteristics of rocks in a particular area.
Mass Wasting
The down-slope movement of regolith under gravity.
Metamorphic Rock
Rock changed by temp or pressure, usually by tectonic forces.
Metamorphism
Changes in mineral assemblage and texture in rock caused by temps above 150 C and pressures of 300+ MPA.
Metasomatism
The metamorphic process when abundant core fluids are involved. Redistribution of chemical elements.
Mechanical/Physical Weathering
Weathering as a result of physical breakup.
Recrystalization
Lithification in which separate mineral grains grow and become interlocked.
Regional Metamorphism
When metamorphism occurs in areas of 10s of 1000s of km^2.
Regolith
Loose surface rock.
Rock Cycle
The cycling of materials through the geosphere.
Sand
The second-largest clast.
Sediment
Sediment-shaped sediment.
Sedimentary Rock
The result of the lithification of sediment.
Silt
One of the 4 clasts. The second-smallest.
Stratigraphy
The study of sedimentary strata.
Stratum
Plural strata. A distinct layer of sediment accumulated at Earth’s surface.
Stress
What I’m under studying for this exam. Also pressure that has a direction … again, what I’m under studying for this exam.
Unconformity
Substantial breaks or gaps in strata.
Weathering
A set of processes that result in conspicuous decomposition of rock.
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