ENVS 112 World Population
China’s 4 pillars of birth control
1956
1. contraceptives
2. increase age of marriage
3. abortion
4. sterilization
Ma In Chu
economist
proponent of birth control
China will not be able to enter real prosperity without reducing population growth
One Child Policy
1979
successful in urban areas
less in rural because parents depend on male child
“voluntary” based on incentives
3 Reasons for ambitious One Child Policy
1. already huge population
2. political focus on modern development
3. a rapid fertility decline had already proved possible with effective health care
Ratio of males:females in 1981, 2005 vs. natural baseline
1981 – 108 : 100
2005 – 118 : 100
natural baseline – 103-107 : 100
Exemptions to one child policy
-need for family labor
-if no boys, rural
-ethnic minorities
-people returning from overseas
-if first child dies or is handicapped
-after adoption, if initially deemed infirtile
-hazardous occupations
% of 1, 1.5, 2 child policies in China
1 – 35%
1.5 – 53%
2 – 10%
Population of top 3 most populous countries
1. China: 1.3 billion
2. India: 1.1 billion
3. U.S. : 296 million
%wealthy and %below poverty in India
wealthy/middle class: 20%
below poverty: 29%
Formation of democratic government
63 years ago: 1947
Kerala
southern state of India with fertility success
-population between 10-50 million
% of India’s population in urban areas
28% of India’s population lives along Ganges River
India’s national family planning program
established 1952
first in the world
introduced information and contraceptives
later introduced health care to reduce infant mortality
Mahabharata
Indian epic of fight between cousins for throne
the family that one had 100 sons and 1 daughter
National bilateral aid agencies for family planning
USAID
UNFPA
IPPF international planned parenthood foundation
5 main international conferences
1. Rome 1954
2. Belgrade 1965
3. Bucharest 1974
4. Mexico City 1984
5. Cairo

also one in Amsterdam

Rome conference
1954
Belgrade conference
1965
made up of scientists, demographers, social experts to examine population trends and implications
Bucharest conference
1974 World Population Programme of Action
official government conference
opposing viewpoints
-China: Mao people are precious
-US: pop control crucial for econ growth
-socialists: econ growth will control pop growth
Mexico City family planning conference
1984 official government conference
-China had already introduced one child policy
-opposition to China’s coercion
-conclusion: human right to individually plan family
Cairo conference
-Egypt a Muslim nation
-other Islamic/Catholic nations angry about support of abortion and sexual promiscuity
-Israel occused of neo-colonial oppression via birth control
-US criticized for high consumption rate
-Paradigm shift : woman’s rights
-Female leaders of Islamic nations, Bangladesh and Pakistan pulled out of conference
Paul Ehrlich’s predictions/beliefs
increasing death rate due to famines
third world countries will never achieve self-sufficiency
-legislation: decreasing tax deductions for subsequent children, prizes for parents that don’t have children or get sterilized
-all Indian men with 3 or more children should be forcefully sterilized
Julian Simon
criticized Paul Ehrlich
human ingenuity will solve all problems of increased population
Famines (4)
1. Bengal 1942-43
-due to sharp increase in price of rice, during WWII
-3.5-5 millino people died
2. Irish Potato Famine 1845-52
-only diet of poor
-only one crop variety cultivated
-caused by blight fungus
-1 million died, 1 million emigrated
3. Chinese Famine 1958-61
-collectivization of agriculture, industrialization
-actual drop in food production
-communication failure between local – federal
-15-30 million died
4. Ethiopia 1983-85
-drought and political violence
-unsustainable agricultural techniques
Amartya Sen
Indian Novel Laureate in Economics
-population itself will not cause famine
-famine will not happen in a world of democracy and free press
Kwashiorkor
disease of starvation
children have skinny body and bloated belly
Marasmus
disease of starvation
look like a skeleton
Joseph Hardin
-lifeboat ethics
-believed 10 million would die every year in 1970’s to 1980’s
Comparison of American impact vs. Indian vs. African
Average American does more harm to the environment than
20-30 Indians
100 Africans
PL480
Food for Peace
US gave wheat to India
reasons: humanitarian aid and to prevent India from turning to communism
Green Revolution
foundation of modern agricultural techniques
foundations funding agricultural research
-Rockefeller
-Ford
Dr. Norman Burlogue
researched crop varieties for better production
-wheat, rice
-combined Indian/Chinese varieties
-Mexico
Impact of Green Revolution in India
food production increased more than population
-decreased price of food
-surplus allowed export
-lack of storage space
Downfalls of Green Revolution
-dependence/increased use of fossil fuels
-unsustainable farming
-decreased soil fertility, erosion, salinization
-pollution
-decreased ground water
-gap between poor and commercial farming
Vendana Shiva
Indian scholar
criticized Green Revolution
China’s population in 1950
563 million
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