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Risk
Probability of harm occurring under certain circumstances
Risk assessment
The use of statistical methods to quantify risks so they can be compared and contrasted
Four steps of risk assessment
1) Hazard Identification
2) Dose-Response assessment
3) Exposure Assessment
4) Risk Characterization
Toxicology
The study of toxicants, chemicals with adverse effects on health
Acute Toxicity
Adverse effects that occur within a SHORT period after HIGH-LEVEL exposure to a toxicant
Chronic Toxicity
Adverse effects that occur after a LONG period of LOW-LEVEL exposure to a toxicant
Pathogen
An agent (usually a microorganism)that causes disease
Biological Magnification
The increase in toxicant concentrations as a toxicant passes through successive levels of the food chain
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
Persistent toxicants that bioaccumulate in organisms and travel through air and water to contaminate sites far from their source
Dose-Response Curve
in toxicology, a graph that shows the effects of different doses on a population of the test organisms
Carcinogen
Any substance that causes cancer
Precautionary Principle
A practice that involves making decisions about adopting a new technology or chemical product by assigning the burden of proof of its safety to its developers
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