ES319 test 1
Conservation Biology principles (3)
evolutionary change = good
dynamic ecology (non-equilibrium)
human interactions
Conservation Biology postulates (4)
Diversity is good
Ecological complexity is good
Evolution is good
Biodiversity has intrisic value
Conservation Biology Characteristics (6)
crisis discipline
multidisciplinary
inexact science
value laden science
Evolutionary (long) time frame
eternal vigilance
Levels of species diversity (3)
species, genetic, community (ecosystem)
alpha diversity
richness (# of species)
evenness (# individuals/area)
beta divesity
along gradient (across a large area, like a mountain)
gamma diversity
full of alpha and beta diversity
cladistic
method of classifying animals.
monophyletic (only 1 ancestor)
shared derived characteristics (synamorphies)
ecosystem engineers
physically change environment. ie elephants create paths to an oasis. beavers make dams.
extinction cascade
predator pop. increases, herbivore pop. decreases, plant pop. increases, etc.
indicator species
live in a narrow niche
umbrella species
species with wide geographic range. If protected, automatically protect other species inside the umbrella species’s geographic area. ie tigers.
flagship species
popular species community wants to protect, and get really involved in. ie pandas
economic species
species that provide an economic benefit (can be harvested)
keystone resources
resources imperative to an environment. ie salt licks, and mineral deposits
why more biodiversity in tropics?
more sunlight=more productivity
nore plant mass=more habitat complexity=more richness
stable climate, & long growing season
more rainfall
less human impact on env.
more predators= less competition in lower trophic levels=higher carrying capacity
zoogeography patterns (north/south america land bridge)
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
with too much disturbance, low biodiversity. with too little disturbance, few species become, and stay dominant = low biodiversity.
frontiers of biodiversity (3)
areas relatively unexplored:
canopy
deep sea/ marine
Intl. Organizations for protecting biodiversity (5)
CI
Alliance for zero extiction
TNC (last wild places)
WCS (wild. cons. soc., last of wild)
WWF (world wild. fund, global 200)
CI
Conservation international
hot spots
megadiversity countries
hotspots
34 hotspots across world
15% earth’s surface, 77% earths’s biodiversity
-high endomism
-high diversity
-high habitat loss
-15% endemic plant species
-70% original habitat lost
megadiversity countries
17 countries with majority of biodiversity
biogeographical ecozones
realms:
nearctic, neotropical, palaearctic, australian,oriental, afrotropical
heirarchy of areas (large to small)
OLD: realms>biomes>provinces>ecosystems
NEW:ecozones>biomes>ecoregions
^Valardy-focused on GIS
ecoregions
825 terrestrial
426 freshwater
232 marine
global 200 is ecoregions
-result from predictable difference in clmate
-based on dominant plants
global 200
237 most threatened ecoregions.
-sp. richness
-endemism
-tax. uniqueness
-ecol. or evol.phenomena
-global rarity of habitat
LTER sites
long term ecoregion sites
ie Harvard forest is coresite in northeast.
Colby sends them data on earthquakes
Crisis ecoregions
WWF
ecoregions endangered according to CRI
64 ecoregions “critical” > 25
10 ecoregions “endangered” > 10
__ ecoregions “vulnerable” > 2
NOTE: 50% overlap with hotspots
CRI
conservation risk index (WWF)
habitat converted:habitat protected (ratio)
Methods of identifying areas in need of protection (9)
-CE (crisis ecozones)
-CPD (centers for plant diversity)
-HBWA (high diversity wild. areas
-BH (biodiversity hotspots)
-MC (megadiversity countries)
-FF (frontier forests)
-EBA (endemic bird areas)
-G200 (global 200)
-LW (last of the wild)
NEON
Natl. Ecological Observatory Network
includes LTER sites across USA
measures biodiversity changes
-invasive species
-diseases
-climate change
IUCN
Intl. Union for Conservation of Nature.
World monitoring center. labels species as:
EX exctinct
EW extinct in wild
CR Critically endangered
EN endangered
VU vulnerable
LC least concern
extinct
none in wild
not found in 50 yrs
usually species hover at crit. endangered for a long time
Permian (triassic) extinction
largest mass extinction
killed 95% of marine sp. plus all trillobites, and many tree sp.
cretaceous extinction
dinosaurs and many more species disappeared. 2nd largest extinction in earth’s history
species rarity
(3 traits)
geogaphic range
habitat specificity
population
rare NOT= endangered necessarily
red list
IUCN
species specialist comission
ie cat s.s.c. group to evaluate threat lvl of all cat species
criteria to differentiate between subcategories of “threatened” lvl in IUCN
CR, EN, or VU
-pop. size reduction
-range (extent of occurance)
-prob. of going extinct in 10 yrs
TNC (The nature concervency)
North and South America
heritage program in every state
factor in already protected areas
not unlike ecoregion classification, but focused on states, not biological background
anthropocentric
centered around humans. concervation for humans sake, rather than for the species sake. = lame.
biocentric
philosophy that all species have their own rights to not become extinct, which we are crossing. Pretty much just bullshit, we’re all really doing this for anthropocentric reasons, and just telling ourselves we’re not.
biophilia
human’s inherent love of nature. we are geneticlly programed to love, and to want to protect nature
Benefits from species (for us. 5)
economic, spiritual, scientific, ecological, strategic (umbrella sp.)
habitat vs. ecosystem
habitat focused on one species, and it’s biotic and abiotic needs)
ecosystem focused on interactions between species, plus other abiotic and biotic factors
habitat degradation
loss of habitat quality
leads to habitat loss
-contamination (pollution/pesticides)
-physical structures
-modification (erosion, H2O consuption)
-ecosystem destruction
-fragmentation
water contamination
phosphorus (lakes)
nitrogen (ocean)
silation (silt settles on coral)
mercury (passed up food chain= biomagnification. ie DDT)
cultural eutrophication
humans speed up the natural process of water bodies becoming too nutrient rich- too low oxygen-everything dies= hypoxic
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