physically change environment. ie elephants create paths to an oasis. beavers make dams.
predator pop. increases, herbivore pop. decreases, plant pop. increases, etc.
live in a narrow niche
species with wide geographic range. If protected, automatically protect other species inside the umbrella species’s geographic area. ie tigers.
popular species community wants to protect, and get really involved in. ie pandas
species that provide an economic benefit (can be harvested)
resources imperative to an environment. ie salt licks, and mineral deposits
why more biodiversity in tropics?
more sunlight=more productivity nore plant mass=more habitat complexity=more richness stable climate, & long growing season more rainfall less human impact on env. more predators= less competition in lower trophic levels=higher carrying capacity zoogeography patterns (north/south america land bridge)
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
with too much disturbance, low biodiversity. with too little disturbance, few species become, and stay dominant = low biodiversity.
frontiers of biodiversity (3)
areas relatively unexplored: canopy deep sea/ marine
Intl. Organizations for protecting biodiversity (5)
CI Alliance for zero extiction TNC (last wild places) WCS (wild. cons. soc., last of wild) WWF (world wild. fund, global 200)
Conservation international hot spots megadiversity countries
34 hotspots across world 15% earth’s surface, 77% earths’s biodiversity -high endomism -high diversity -high habitat loss -15% endemic plant species -70% original habitat lost
OLD: realms>biomes>provinces>ecosystems NEW:ecozones>biomes>ecoregions ^Valardy-focused on GIS
825 terrestrial 426 freshwater 232 marine global 200 is ecoregions -result from predictable difference in clmate -based on dominant plants
237 most threatened ecoregions. -sp. richness -endemism -tax. uniqueness -ecol. or evol.phenomena -global rarity of habitat
long term ecoregion sites ie Harvard forest is coresite in northeast. Colby sends them data on earthquakes
WWF ecoregions endangered according to CRI 64 ecoregions “critical” > 25 10 ecoregions “endangered” > 10 __ ecoregions “vulnerable” > 2 NOTE: 50% overlap with hotspots
conservation risk index (WWF) habitat converted:habitat protected (ratio)
Methods of identifying areas in need of protection (9)
-CE (crisis ecozones) -CPD (centers for plant diversity) -HBWA (high diversity wild. areas -BH (biodiversity hotspots) -MC (megadiversity countries) -FF (frontier forests) -EBA (endemic bird areas) -G200 (global 200) -LW (last of the wild)
Natl. Ecological Observatory Network includes LTER sites across USA measures biodiversity changes -invasive species -diseases -climate change
Intl. Union for Conservation of Nature. World monitoring center. labels species as: EX exctinct EW extinct in wild CR Critically endangered EN endangered VU vulnerable LC least concern
none in wild not found in 50 yrs usually species hover at crit. endangered for a long time
Permian (triassic) extinction
largest mass extinction killed 95% of marine sp. plus all trillobites, and many tree sp.
dinosaurs and many more species disappeared. 2nd largest extinction in earth’s history
species rarity (3 traits)
geogaphic range habitat specificity population rare NOT= endangered necessarily
IUCN species specialist comission ie cat s.s.c. group to evaluate threat lvl of all cat species
criteria to differentiate between subcategories of “threatened” lvl in IUCN
CR, EN, or VU -pop. size reduction -range (extent of occurance) -prob. of going extinct in 10 yrs
TNC (The nature concervency)
North and South America heritage program in every state factor in already protected areas not unlike ecoregion classification, but focused on states, not biological background
centered around humans. concervation for humans sake, rather than for the species sake. = lame.
philosophy that all species have their own rights to not become extinct, which we are crossing. Pretty much just bullshit, we’re all really doing this for anthropocentric reasons, and just telling ourselves we’re not.
human’s inherent love of nature. we are geneticlly programed to love, and to want to protect nature