ESCI-GEOGRAPHY
Primary Circulation
The prevailing fundamental atmospheric circulation on a planetary scale which must exist in response to radiation differences with latitude, to the rotation of the earth, and to the particular distribution of land and oceans, and which is required from the viewpoint of conservation of energy.
Secondary Circulation
circulation induced in a rotating system.
Tertiary Circulation
The generally small, localized atmospheric circulations, represented by such phenomena as local winds, thunderstorms, and tornadoes.
Meridional flows
North and South circulation is unusually pronounced
Zonal Flows
East West circulation.
Air Pressure
caused by motion, size and number of gas molecules in the air. Height in altitude decreases pressure.
Anemometer
An instrument for measuring wind velocity
Wind Vane
Measures direction of wind
Geostrophic Winds
are a result of the pressure gradient force and the Coriolus force on air currents: only occur when the wind blows parallel to straight isobars, when there are no other forces acting on it.
Trade Winds
Below tropics of cancer and above capricorn, North East and South East
Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
Low pressure moves back and forth due to insolation. Lots of clouds due to warm air rising.
Pressure Gradient Force
Drives air from high-pressure areas to low-pressure areas. Acts in right angles to Isobars. Wants to balance wind pressure.
anticyclone
high pressure cell with a clockwise flow
Barometer
An instrument that measures wind pressure
katabatic winds
Air on a high plateau or polar ice sheet cools and pours off the edge of the plateau. “Gravity drainage”
Asian Monsoons
Mostly caused by the ITCZ. Also, is accounted for by the varying of pressure and winds between summer and winter.
Gyre
The general patterns of major ocean currents follow circulation systems around pressure cells.
Rossby Waves
Waving undulations in the westerly flow of geostrophic winds
Eustacy
he process by which water formed within Earth reaches the surface is an ongoing process
Evaporation of Water
The process of changing H20 from liquid to gas. The Water gains Latent heat, because it needs energy (heat) to transform.
Condensation of water
When water vapor turns into water: Latent heat is released (we take away the energy of h20)
Radiation Fog
Usually covers a wide area of land after the earth has begun cooling (sunset-sunrise). Never over water.
Advection Fog
fog produced by air in motion or to fog formed in one place and transported to another. This type of fog is formed when warmer air is transported over colder land or water surfaces. Over Coast-lines
Orographic lifting
When air is confronted by a mountain, goes over the mountain and cools, then sinks back down. Forms clouds.
Mesocyclone
Mother of Tornadoes, they contract horizontally, causing winds to accelerate in an inward vortex.
Mesocyclone
Mother of Tornadoes, they contract horizontally, causing winds to accelerate in an inward vortex.
Stable
Air that returns to its original position after an initial vertical displacement
Sublimation
The transition from ice to water vapor
Deposition
Changing of water vapor directly to solid ice
Cloud classification
Depends on Altitude and Shape
Convergent Lifting
occurs when air flows toward an area of low pressure.
Results in heaver precipitation in tropical regions.
Convergent Lifting
occurs when air flows toward an area of low pressure.
Results in heaver precipitation in tropical regions.
Occluded front
Produced when cold front overtakes a warm front in a mid-latitudinal cyclone
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