ESPM C11 Midterm 1 Key Terms
What do people think a forest is?
animal habitats, places where you can obtain food, Japan has a suicide forest, places where you can harvest timber
What might people say the appropriate relationship with a forest it?

humans should protect the forest for recreation, protect animal habitat, and protect timber resources

 

some religions have links to trees, some ppl’s livelihoods are connected to trees

Examples of some of the major issues in managing and conserving forests

use of fire

Yosemite actually uses it and natives used it

 

who should be responsbile for managing forest?

private, govt, militart

Coupled Human- natural systems

framework where there are links to humans and natural systems on the planet

how social and natural systems are inseparable

 

ex=ppl want recreation so want nice forests

Reciprocal Feedback loops
path by which some of the output of a system gets brought back into the input and loop affects the environment that in turn affects the loop
Time Lags

time during which action is awaited.

Relates to cause/effect of certain policies

Resilience
An ecosystem’s ability to withstand a disturbance
Heteregenity

variety of qualities found in an environment or population

different types of plants and animals

surprises + legacy effects

unexpected events that can occur in forest growth

 

lasting effects from a forest’s past, such as logging and burning

Norm
implicit or explicit rule governing what is accepted within a group or society
values
relative worth of importance
assumptions
what people believe without appropriate knowledge
Dersu Uzala and human-forest relationships
advance of civilization can destroy relationship Dersu lived in peace with forest until the surveyors came + disturbed forest w/guns

Nanai People

 

land

 

culture

 

people of the Russian far east. Lived in the middle of the Amur, Sunggari, and Ussuri rivers in Middle Amur Basin.

caught siberian salmon. also did hunting, had animism. Fire was called Fadyza mama. Shamanists with great reverence for tiger (Amba). Wosrhippers of sun, moon, mountains, water, and trees

Commodification
turning something into a commodity, make commercial
Usufructory Rights
rights of a person to use and profit from another person’s property as long as he/she isn’t damaging it
subsistence
self sufficient farming where farmers focus on growing enough food for themselves and theirfamilies
Reciprocity
Exchanging things with others for mutual benefit
colonialism
control by one power over a dependent area or people
Indigenous/commercial view of forests

indigenous= conserve forest for value and beauty

 

commercial=use forest to make products like paper, timber to make money

Nanai people Today
Lost their hunting spots due to logging+ water of Amur river containg chemicals and copper

Yurok Forest

 

alogn Pacific coast and Klamath river

 

 increasing unsuitability of forests pushed yuroks to sell

general allotment act applied property rights to reservations. natives to become civilized through learning to farm

 

dawes act- natives given allotment of farming and livestock

Spatial and Tomporal characteristics of Yurok land
yurok managed the watershed for diversity, and used fires to make sure douglas firs would not grow too tall too quickly
States and Transition Model to explain differnce b/t Yurok and American management

shows that using herbicides/intensive timber management

can cause process to go from prarie to immature douglass fir

fires can cause shrubs/grass to go back to prairie, and fire can prevent immature douglas from becoming mature

 

 

Yurok use of fire

increase spatial extent of grassland, oak woodland, shrubland plant communities that was useful plant material and attracted game

 

burned douglas fir b/c preferred oak reproduction and growth

free-riders
people who don’t do what is in the best interest of agroup
commons
shared resources where each stakeholder has an equal interest
levithan
something big that comes in and changes things + controls things
Why policies based on metaphors can be harmful
Metaphors are simply comparisons between two otherwise unlike things. They disregard certain institutional arrangements and the fact that people can talk to each other and make agreements, so they aren’t trapped ina certain situation
Powell

laborers should employ themsellves-; privatization

 

he was an ecologist who knew several native languages and said Arizona forests are better managed by Natives

Pinchot
sustaianability- most good for most people long term. Need highly, effecient focused production of foresters, didn’t really believe in using fire, thought we would run out of timber
Olmstead

forests should be managed by ppl w/appropriate knowledge

rather than cadets at west point, they should be be people who spent more time learning about forestry

How forests became associated with the state
govt when Pres Cleveland signed off on federal reserve act assosiated forests with the state. Psuedo-military management was idea proposed by prof. Sargeant at Harvrd
Organic Act
Established national park service to manage certain federal alnds. Trees could be harvested but not much. Established to conserve lands for future genertaions
Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act-

authorizes and directs secretary of Agriculture to develop and administer the renewable resources of timber, range, water, and recreation in national forests for multiple use and sustained yield of products and services

 

meet the needs of the people. sustained yield=maintain regular output of renewable resources Sustained yield:  regular output without impairment of the land’s productivity.

NEPA

national ecology policy act- include environmental consideration into federal planning and action

 

provides decision makers/stakeholders with information they need to undertand potential environmental impacts of proposed actions

US Forest Service
started b/c of progressive era infludence. Forest reserve act took land from public and called them forest reserves that would be managed by what would become the US forest service
Muir vs. Pinchot

Both=government control

 

Muir = trees are spritual and represent god, believed forests affected climate, once said shooting someone could be more effective than science. conservation for bueaty

 

Pinchot=preservation for resources

sustainability, most good for most people over time, preserve timber

alternative ideas of how to conserve forests

Muir intially said to use force to protect forests
Bowers said we need an effect parmanent system of forest management.
Fernow=government control
Rothock= fire police, subsidies for tree planting, effective forestry school
Colvin=army
Abbe=civilian force under department of argiculture
Roosevelt=federal government + informing the public
Riordian=anything it takes

ecosystem
a community of species interacting among one another in the physical environment
community
an aggregation of interacting species
ecology

the study of the relationship between living organisms and their natural environment

 

ex=why a certain plant grows ina particular area

hiiearchy

the fact that smaller classifications can be part of a larger larger classifications of a group of organisms

 

biospher-;biome-;ecosystem-;community-;population-;organism

postive feedback

where resulting output gets increased

more of one things leads to more of another

 

ex= more wildfire due to global warming can lead to more carbon dioxide emissions that lead to higher temperatures and more wildfire

Negative feedback

more predators eat more animals decreasing the amount of animals

 

 

frontier forests

forests that are ecologically intact and have been mostly undisturbed

 

very few today

 

Amazon is one of them

biome
a large and distinct community of plants and animals that occupies a particular region
ecological gradient

shift from one ecosystem to the next without a sharp boundary

 

ex=tropical forest to temperate forest

 

elevation-temp gets colder at higher elevations

precipatation- decreases as you move away from the equator

 

maritime-coastal regions get more rainfall

ecological forest

 

social forest

 

political forest

just a regular forest defined, coupled natural systems

 

forest used for ppl’s livelihood, they are part of social identity and connection to a place, have informatl rights and rules

 

land declared forest by government authorities, land use categorized into how many resources can be extracted,  considered government reserve, have management plans

siviculture
process of controlling and manging the forest to meet certain needs and values
maximum sustained yield
thelargest uield that can be taken while still allowing the forest to be productive
old growth
a forest that has gotten to old age without significant disturbance
Bambi
shows that fire is a disturbance and humans don’t care about the animals they are shooting when they hunt
Campaign Against Fire

Marketing campaign sought icon, Disney allowed use of Bambi, Smokey the bare was the new icon , ans at once point recognized more than the president

strengthened budget and centralized authority of USFS

Loved by public

ignored contradictory science, funded supportive science, succession-based forest management

NSF gave millions to prevent lightning in project skyfire

Fire and the Forest

 

Powell

 

Resiliency

Powell recognized the human role in producing a resilient forest

 

Resilient forest= not much vegetation in understory for fire to climb onto the crown from

high frequency, low intensity fires

some forests follow a different model w/regular burning: Yosemite

 

Results that we’re living with= large fires and vegetation change

biome is subject to fires

How can we restore resilience?
communities affected by fire participate
Langston= Misfit of classical succession model to forest

disturbance is a rare, external event, not intrinsic property like Clements said

 

Succession isn’t orderly because foresters couldn’t really always predice that would come in after disturbance

 

If forests followed simple laws of competition like Clements said, foresters would manipulate competitive struggle to speed up succession to arrive at most desirable plant communities

Fairfax et al: Who decides and who benefits or pays the price?

Muir and Pinchot both believed in federal ownership and that local users of natural resources were greedy, ill-informed, and untrustworthy

 

alternative approached that might be more harmonious with current efforts of local groups to get control over their environment, ime to look at conservation modes that don’t depend on federal ownership and management of public

 

sometimes, too many trees leads to insect attack and dry trees due to limited water resources

environemental justice

have enough resources for future generations

poorer people live near polluting factories

national resrouces- some groups get less benefit from the way national resources are managed and allocated

environemental justice

enough resources for future generations

 

poorer people live near polluting factories

 

national resources-some groups less likely to benefit from the particular way a resource is managed or distributed

Fairness

fairness doctrint 1949= eliminated scc equal opportunity to talk on radio in response to others

 

pinchot= greatest good for greatest amount of people= utilitarian and didn’t count minorities

 

free market fairness under Reagan

management models= participatory, collaborative, ecosystem, community

 

Par Collab Ecos Comm

participatory= local + institutional inputs used to develop best policy

 

collaborative- multiple ppl work together and many opinions heard

 

ecosystem- rely on best science, dynamics, broader perspective

 

community-realistic+ long term sustainable solutions -> community aspect leads to better decisions + avoid litigation+ more sustainability

carbon cycle

transfer of carbon in an ecosystem

 

carbon flux-transfer of carbon from 1 pool to another

 

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