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1) Please answer correctly, as it will be graded. The subject of this course is _______.
A) Environmental Science
B) Horticulture and Landscaping
C) Advanced Biometrics
D) Chemical Thermodynamics
A
2) The process of one tectonic plate being pulled underneath another is called?
A) Cross plate forces
B) Tectonic subduction
C) Tectonic friction
D) Continental derivation
B
3) Douglas fir regeneration responds well to:
A) shade conditions
B) moist understories
C) bog-like conditions
D) full sun conditions
D
4) Who was the man behind the term “preservation” in environmental science?
A) John Muir
B) Teddy Roosevelt
C) Gifford Pinchot
D) Aldo Leopold
A
5) The first country to adopt an official population policy was?
A) China
B) India
C) USA
D) Germany
B
6) An organism’s ecological niche is:
A) the set of environmental conditions within which a species is able to persist.
B) the temperature range in which an organism occurs when there is no competition from other organisms.
C) the temperature range in which an organism occurs when there is competition from other organisms.
D) the point at which the organism’s resource needs overlap causing competition between organisms.
A
7) All individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile young are defined as a(n):
A) kingdom
B) species
C) community
D) ecosystem
B
8) Scientifically, _______ is expressed as the number of species in an area.
A) biological diversity
B) biological evolution
C) genetic drift
D) natural selection
A
9) The term ombrotrophic refers to a water system that is fed mainly by:
A) rainwater and air.
B) a stream.
C) an underground source.
D) transpiration from plants.
A
10) What is the main alcohol found in biofuel?
A) Isopropanol
B) Ethanol
C) Propane
D) Butanol
B
11) The _________ approach estimates how many people can be put onto our planet without taking into account Earth’s ability to supply their needs, such as the need for food.
A) carrying capacity
B) exponential population growth
C) abundance
D) packing problem
D
12) The four processes that lead to biological evolution are:
A) Mutation, Natural Selection, Migration, and Genetic Drift
B) Mutation, genetic drift, genetic modification, and conservation
C) Mutation, migration, predation, and population decline
D) Mutation, natural selection, predation, and genetic modification
A
13) Positive feedback occurs when:
A) an increase in output leads to a further increase in the output.
B) people leave the city.
C) an increase in temperature is followed by a response that leads to a decrease in temperature.
D) air and water pollution, disease, crime and overcrowding occur.
A
14) In developed countries, what percentage of people live in urban areas?
A) 5%
B) 35%
C) 75%
D) 95%
C
15) Species that benefit each other, but are not essential to each other are called _________.
A) facultative symbionts
B) subordinate symbionts
C) obligate symbionts
D) disordinal symbionts
A
16) In ________ a single species that is isolated on different islands can be separated into multiple distinct species. Each group responds and adapts to its own environment. For instance, on an island with large fruit seeds, a small beaked finch may not do well, however a large beaked finch has just the right apparatus to break the seed; therefore its genes have the opportunity to move to the next generation.
A) gamma radiation
B) nuclear radiation
C) adaptive radiation
D) comparative radiation
C
17) What is the approximate current human population?
A) 1 billion
B) 7 billion
C) 14 billion
D) 30 billion
B
18) Growth rate is defined as:
A) the number of individuals who die during that same time interval.
B) the number of individuals that are added to a particular ecosystem in a pre-determined period of time.
C) number of individuals who are born during a certain time interval.
D) the difference between birth rate and death rate.
D
19) The first plants to appear after a disturbance are called _________.
A) pioneer species
B) invasive species
C) deciduous species
D) saprophytic species
A
20) Late-successional species grow well in _______ and have seeds that can survive for a _______ period of time.
A) dark, long
B) shade, short
C) full sunlight, short
D) shade, long
D
21) A species such as the sea otter that has a large effect on its community or ecosystem is called a ________.
A) turnkey species
B) keystone species
C) latchkey species
D) key species
B
22) The largest phosphorous stores on Earth are in the_________.
A) Earth’s expansive ocean waters
B) Earth’s ocean sediments
C) Earth’s outer crust
D) Earth’s plants and animals
C
23) Which of the following is an example of a system sink and flux?
A Sink: a dam, Flux: an ocean
B) Sink: a landslide, Flux: shifting of ground sediments
C) Sink: underground water storage, Flux: ice caps
D) Sink: forests of the world, Flux: amount of carbon transferred from atmosphere to forest
D
24) Maximum potential lifetime (longevity) is determined by _______.
A) health
B) wealth
C) genetics
D) geographic location
C
25) What is a watershed?
A) A large pit used as a reservoir.
B) A man-made structure used for capturing rainwater.
C) An area of land where rainfall flows out through the same stream.
D) Any metal structure used for storing water.
C
26) Approximately how old is the planet Earth?
A) 55 billion years
B) 21 billion years
C) 5 billion years
D) 1 billion years
C
27) The concept of “carrying capacity” refers to:
A) Maximum number of individuals of a single species that can be sustained by an environment without reducing the environment’s ability to sustain the same number of individuals in the future.
B) Amount of environmental degradation that a particular ecosystem can support without losing its capacity to regenerate.
C) Maximum number of individuals of different species that can be sustained by an environment without reducing the environment’s ability to sustain the same number of individuals in the future.
D) Number of offspring a woman can bear in her life.
A
28) Photosynthesis generally ___________.
A) converts glucose into energy and water
B) requires the combustion of carbon
C) produces carbon dioxide and oxygen gas
D) yields glucose and oxygen gas
D
29) When two populations of the same species become geographically isolated from each other for a long time, the two populations may change so much genetically that they can no longer reproduce together, even when they are brought back into contact. This is known as ____.
A) genetic drift
B) mutation
C) divergent evolution
D) functional evolution
C
30) The organisms that are classified as primary consumers are the __________.
A) detritivores
B) omnivores
C) carnivores
D) herbivores
D
31) Which of the following is BEST considered the underlying cause of environmental issues?:
A) Overfishing
B) Seawater level rising
C) Desertification
D) Human population growth
D
32) What allows alders to grow along the edges of glaciers?
A) Nitrogen fixation
B) Chronic patchiness
C) Facilitation
D) Restoration
A
33) After which event would secondary succession occur?
A) Lava flow
B) Forest fire
C) Emergence from the ocean
D) Glacial retreat
B
34) _______ cutting method removes all but a few mature trees with good genetic characteristics and high seed production to promote the regeneration of the forest.
A) Shelterwood
B) Clear
C) Seed-tree
D) Selective
C
36) Carbon forms two of the most important greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide and ______.
A) nitrous oxide
B) methane
C) ammonia
D) The only greenhouse gas formed by carbon is carbon dioxide
B
37) Which of the following is an adaptation of late-successional species?:
A) Shade tolerance
B) Fast growing
C) Heliotropic (sun-loving)
D) Seeds that spread quickly.
A
38) Which of these sets of elements are considered the fundamental building blocks of life?:
A) C,H,O,N,P,B
B) C,H,O,N,S,P
C) C,H,O,N,P,F
D) C,H,O,N,F,S
B
39) About ______ of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas.
A) 10%
B) 35%
C) 50%
D) 80%
D
40) To restore the fox population in the Channel Islands, ________ are to be removed and ________ are to be reintroduced.
A) bald eagles, golden eagles
B) deer, goats
C) golden eagles, goats
D) golden eagles, bald eagles
D
2) The profession of growing trees is known as:
A) Silviculture
B) Arborealculture
C) Forealculture
D) Restoration Ecology
A
4) How fast do tectonic plates move?
A) Between 0 and 1 foot a year.
B) Between 5 and 10 feet a year.
C) Between 10 and 50 feet a year.
D) Between 50 and 100 feet a year.
A
5) Chronic patchiness is found in which ecosystem?
A) Tropical rainforest
B) Temperate rainforest
C) Desert
D) Chaparral
C
11) Estimates of how many people the planet can support range from 2.5 billion to 40 billion. Which of the following factors does not play an important role in this estimate?
A) Our ability to grow food.
B) The soil’s ability to sustain population growth.
C) Availability of water.
D) Dropping birth rate in developing countries.
D
12) What makes an ecological island different from other areas?
A) It can only support up to a dozen species.
B) Most species of fish cannot survive around the territory of an ecological island.
C) It is biologically isolated, so species living there cannot mix with other populations of the same species.
D) These islands have constant ecological interactions with larger landmasses.
`
C
13) How many species of birds native to the United States have been infected with the West Nile virus?
A) 25
B) 400
C) 100
D) 5000
A
14) Two species that compete for the same life resources and have exactly the same requirements
A) will always come to equilibrium by sharing resources.
B) breed with each other.
C) cannot coexist in exactly the same habitat
D) can share the same habitat.
C
15) The first major increase in human population occurred during the ________?
A) Industrial revolution
B) Rise of agriculture
C) Early period of hunters and gatherers
D) World War I
B
17) According to Cranfield University’s study of the effects of vegetarianism on the environment, vegetarianism may:
A) push livestock animals to extinction.
B) lead to more deforestation.
C) always be more beneficial to one’s health.
D) dramatically lower land use.
B
18) Acorn abundance is tied to Lyme disease abundance through mice, ticks, deer and humans. This is an example of:
A) a forest food web.
B) a symbiotic interaction.
C) the competitive exclusion principle.
D) an ecological niche.
A
23) The establishment of a community following a disturbance that doesn’t remove the soil is:
A) climax succession.
B) tertiary succession.
C) secondary succession.
D) primary succession.
C
24) Generally, interference refers to _______ successional species preventing the establishment of _______ successional species.
A) early, late
B) late, early
C) young, old
D) early, old
A
25) Which of the following is true of autotrophs?:
A) They might eat heterotrophs.
B) They are known as decomposers.
C) They cannot perform photosynthesis.
D) They can live without heterotrophs.
D
26) A sustainable society _______.
A) ensures that Earth’s resources will remain adequate to support future generations.
B) keep its population under 100,000 million.
C) harms the environment without causing economic hardship and social concerns.
D) saves at least as much as it spends.
A
27) What is a message to be learned from whooping cranes?
A) If a species is rare, its population will always remain rare.
B) Not all rare species are in danger of extinction.
C) Large populations should be controlled.
D) Rare species are destined for extinction.
`
B
28) A country with a high growth rate will display a ________ shape when graphed, indicating a large number of individuals in the younger ages.
A) diamond
B) pyramid
C) pregnant middle
D) inverse pyramid
B
29) In forestry, which of the following is one of the alternatives to clear-cutting that leaves some trees in the stand?
A) Shelterwood cutting
B) Riparian cutting
C) Deforestation
D) Afforestation
A
30) What does “biota” refer to?
A) All living things within a given area.
B) All living things plus all non-living things within a given area.
C) All non-living things within a given area.
D) An alternative to the Gaia hypothesis.
A
31) With obligate symbionts:
A) each provides what the other needs and neither could survive without the other.
B) each provides what the other needs but each could survive without the other.
C) one provides what the other needs, while the other is harmed by relinquishing the resource.
D) one provides what the other needs, and the other is oblivious to the interaction.
A
32) In reference to ecological succession, the term facilitation refers to:
A) one species making the environment more suitable for another species.
B) one species preventing the establishment of another species.
C) late-successional species colonizing a freshly disturbed area.
D) the amount of biomass in the system peaking and then declining once again.
A
33) A lava flow is an example of what kind of succession?
A) Primary
B) Secondary
C) Tertiary
D) Climax
A
34) _________ is one of the “Big Six” elements necessary as the building blocks of life.
A) Fluorine
B) Calcium
C) Lead
D) Sulfur
D
36) Sea otters feed on sea urchins. Sea urchins then feed on kelp. If there are fewer sea otters, there will be ________ kelp.
A) more
B) the same amount
C) less
D) There is not enough information to answer the question.
C
37) Doubling time is defined as:
A) the growth of a population that has increased by 20%.
B) the growth of a population that remains the same for only 2 years.
C) the time it takes a population to drop its growth rate by half.
D) the time it takes for what is growing to double in size or number.
D
38) The founder of the Yale School of Forestry and the first head of the U.S. Forest Service was __________, also generally considered to be the father of modern professional forestry.
A) John Muir
B) Theodore Roosevelt
C) Franklin Roosevelt
D) Gifford Pinchot
D
39) In the study of adaptive radiation of honeycreepers in Hawaii, the varying beak size and shape:
A) arose due to differing food type and availability.
B) arose due to mutations occurring in the gene pool.
C) arose due to environmental instability.
D) arose due to interbreeding with other bird species.
A
40) ______ are communities of organisms, including the community’s local nonliving environment, in which matter (i.e. chemical elements) cycles and energy flows.
A) Biomes
B) Ecosystems
C) Families
D) Biosphere
B
2) The current consumption of the Earth’s renewable natural resources is estimated to be about _________ the EarthOs biological productivity replaces each year.
A) 50 percent greater than
B) 20 percent greater than
C) 10 percent less than
D) about the same as
B
3) The “balance of nature” means that _______.
A) natural events lead to devastating, permanent changes in ecosystems
B) humans and animals can coexist in harmony
C) carnivores and predators will balance each other’s numbers
D) natural systems that are not disturbed by people tend to persist in a steady state
D
5) We use both ____ and ____ to solve environmental problems.
A) technology, work
B) money, hypotheses
C) science, values
D) mythology, veganism
C
6) When we harvest a product from an ecosystem, we need to be concerned about the _______ of the harvest.
A) sustainability
B) demographics
C) amount
D) financial incentives
A
7) Which of these positive environmental effects are mainly caused by the fact that human population is constantly decreasing?
A) Development of new eco-friendly technologies used to produce energy
B) Reduction in the amount and concentration of green house gases in the atmosphere
C) There is no positive effect because human population is currently increasing
D) People are more “engaged” about the environment
C
8) What kind of curve shape best describes the current pattern at which global population is changing?
A) “J” shaped curve
B) Negative slope straight line
C) “S” shaped curve
D) None of the above. Human population is constantly changing, and cannot be estimated
A
9) Which of the following is not a typical population’s age structure?
A) Pyramid
B) Column with bulge
C) Inverted pyramid
D) Inflected pyramid
D
10) What is the most accurate estimate of how many people the planet can support with basic requirements of life?
A) From 1 to 5.5 billion
B) From 1 to 6.8 billion
C) From 2.5 to 6.8 billion
D) From 2.5 to 40 billion
D
11) The cause of the highest number of deaths in the United States in 1998 was ______.
A) suicide
B) accidents
C) heart disease
D) cancer
C
12) Which of the following is not a component of the EarthOs major reservoirs?
A) Atmosphere
B) Lithosphere
C) Hydrosphere
D) Mesosphere
D
13) Which of these cycles is not part of the geologic cycle?
A) Metamorphic
B) Hydrologic
C) Biogeochemical
D) Tectonic
A
14) Approximately how long has the Earth’s geologic cycle been functioning?
A) 200 million years
B) 1.5 billion years
C) 4.6 billion years
D) 10.2 billion years
C
15) Seattle started discharging treated wastewater into Puget Sound instead of Lake Washington in 1968 because of _____ contamination problems.
A) phosphorus
B) nitrogen
C) cyanide
D) bioremedial oxygen demand
A
16) What essential element is acquired by plants primarily from the air?
A) calcium
B) potassium
C) aerium
D) carbon
D
17) The erosion of the Grand Canyon is an example of the effects of _____.
A) nutrient cycling
B) Techtonic uplift
C) geological deposition
D) rock formation
B
18) A group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area at the same time is called a ____.
A) species
B) population
C) community
D) genus
B
20) The place where a species lives is termed its ______.
A) residence
B) ecological niche
C) habitat
D) environmental abode
C
21) The competitive exclusion principle indicates that two species that compete for the same resources ______.
A) cannot coexist in the same habitat
B) add to the biological diversity
C) remain contant in numbers
D) can increase the biological integrity
A
22) Symbiosis in nature is _________.
A) always detrimental to species
B) very rare
C) widespread
D) internal
C
23) We call the group of organisms and their interactions with the living and nonliving environment a(n) ________.
A) ecosystem
B) symbiotic entity
C) free living system
D) mutualist society
A
24) A change in the genetic composition of a population over successive generations is called ____.
A) emigration.
B) mutation.
C) natural selection.
D) genetic drift
D
25) Among the causes of evolution is(are) ______.
A) species conditioning
B) mutualistic adaptation
C) biological responses
D) Competition for resources
D
26) _______ occurs when two or more species are isolated and evolve differently.
A) Ecological adaptation
B) Species migration
C) Divergent evolution
D) convergent evolution
C
27) The failure of antimalarial efforts starting in 1957 over time shows how organisms can develop ________.
A) populations
B) biological integrity
C) resistence
D) embryonic adaptation
C
28) _______ is best defined as the total number of genetic characteristics of a specific species, subspecies, or group of species.
A) genetic succession
B) genetic drift
C) genetic diversity
D) biodiversity
C
29) Biologists estimate that ________ species exist on Earth today.
A) 80-200 thousand
B) 300-500 thousand
C) 1-2 million
D) 3-10 million
D
30) _________ is the initial establishment and development of an ecosystem where one did not exist.
A) Secondary succession
B) Tertiary succession
C) Primary succession
D) Restoration
C
31) What was the most successful restoration method for lead mines in England?
A) Fertilizer applications
B) Fast-growing commercial grasses
C) Top soil
D) Slow-growing native grasses
D
32) Dune grass is an example of a(n) ________ in succession.
A) Interferer
B) Facilitator
C) Remediator
D) Obligator
B
33) The Fort Valley Experimental Forest shows that it can be a problem ecologically to ________ fire.
A) increase
B) prescribe burn
C) eliminate
D) propagate
C
35) Left undisturbed for a long time, an ecosystem _______ its stored elements.
A) slowly loses
B) rapidly loses
C) slowly increases
D) rapidly increases
A
36) Which species is best suited to clearcutting in the Pacific Northwest?
A) Western red cedar
B) Western hemlock
C) Douglas-fir
D) Ponderosa pine
C
37) Aldo Leopold developed the term _______, which holds that all of EarthOs resources have the right to exist in a natural state, and humans should not be conquerors of those resources, but citizens of the Earth and protectors of resources.
A) Conservation
B) Preservation
C) Restoration
D) The Land Ethic
D
38) For fun (any answer will be considered correct). What is the answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything?
A) 3.1415926
B) 42
C) 89
D) 102
Any answer, he put B
39) According to the discussion list, it is estimated that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch contains about ________ million tons of garbage and is growing daily.
A) 3.5
B) 12
C) 28
D) 150
A
40) According to the discussion list, the population of China is ____ people.
A) 750 million
B) 1.2 billion
C) 1.7 billion
D) 1.825 billion
B
5) Environmental sustainability implies:
A) the actions of humans directly impact the well-being of the natural environment
B) future generations will have the resources necessary for a quality life
C) a shared global responsibility for conservation practices
D) all of the above
D
2) According to a post on the discussion list, one of the disadvantages of biofuels is that ____________.
A) they are more expensive
B) they produce more quantities of greenhouse gases
C) they actually pollute more
D) they burn less efficiently in modern cars
A
3) According to a post on the discussion last, the new Seattle bag tax charges _______ cents per bag.
A) 20
B) 25
C) 30
D) 50
A
4) As the 21st century began the global human population reached_________billion.
A) 3
B) 5
C) 6
D) 8
C
9) Biota is a general term used to describe
A) all living things
B) all non-living parts of the environment
C) factors that affect organisms
D) none of the above
A
10) A scientist who first sounded the alarm about the growth of the human population and the ability of the earth to handle a large population of humans was
A) Charles Darwin
B) Paul Ehrlich
C) Thomas Malthus
D) Rachel Carson
C
11) Longevity can be defined as:
A) average number of additional years an individual can expect to live
B) life expectancy of a newborn
C) genetically determined maximum possible age to which an individual of a particular species can live
D) outliving those who once lived before us
C
12) The Tsunami of December 2004 killed over 150,000 people. With a world population growth rate of 1.4%, approximately 100,000 people killed by the tsunami were replaced in
A) one year
B) two weeks
C) less than a day
D) six months
C
13) Which of the following parameters is/are necessary to describe exponential population growth?
A) carrying capacity
B) population size
C) juvenile death rate
D) time lag
B
14) Which of the following chemicals is most important in the transfer and use of energy within cells?
A) carbon
B) hydrogen
C) phosphorus
D) nitrogen
C
15) Which of the following elements cycles quickly and is readily regenerated for biological activity?
A) phosphorus
B) calcium
C) magnesium
D) nitrogen
D
16) Igneous rock is produced from all of the following except:
A) molten material
B) lava from volcanoes
C) internal heat from the tectonic cycle
D) weathered materials
D
17) Nitrogen is needed to manufacture which two important biological compounds ?
A) proteins and DNA
B) proteins and water
C) sugar and starch
D) DNA and sugar
A
18) What are the four major components of the environment?
A) atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere
B) oceans, rivers, lakes and groundwater
C) rocks, soils, sediments, and water
D) plants, animals, air and water
A
19) Which of the following is NOT a way in which carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere?
A) through respiration of living things
B) burning fossil fuels
C) natural wildfires
D) photosynthesis
D
20) A species upon which the entire ecosystem depends is called a(n):
A) mutualist
B) keystone species
C) niche
D) individual species
D
21) The First Law of Thermodynamics states that:
A) energy can be created or destroyed by physical processes
B) entropy always increases
C) energy cannot be created or destroyed
D) energy transfer between organisms is inefficient and much energy is lost
C
22) The function or important role of a species in an ecosystem is termed its
A) biome
B) ecosystem
C) habitat
D) ecological niche
D
23) Predators:
A) aid in limiting the population sizes of their prey
B) live in symbiotic relationships with other predators
C) control their own populations
D) increase the population sizes of their prey
A
24) Autotrophs are:
A) decomposers
B)primary producers
C) whales
D) top predators
B
25) Which of the following characteristics is known to make a species more vulnerable to extinction?
A) occupying a small ( localized) range
B) living on a continent
C) population less than 1 million
D) high reproductive success
A
27) How many species have been recovered in the US since the inception of the Endangered Species Act of 1973?
A) 2
B) 43
C) 430
D) 7600
B
28) A species in imminent danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range is said to be:
A) commercially extinct
B) endangered
C) threatened
D) invasive
B
29) The goal of restoration ecology is
A) successful restoration of a habitat to its natural state
B) returning damaged, degraded, or destroyed ecosystems to a functional, sustainable and natural environment
C) creating a strong balance between nature and humans
D) to keep humans from destroying ecosystems
B
30) Which of the following elements is not essential for plant growth and function?
A) phosphorus
B) calcium
C) nitrogen
D) aluminum
D
31) Facilitation happens when
A) plants struggle to survive because of other species’ growth
B) first plant species die off after new plants emerge
C) other species move in and overtake an area
D) first plant species prepare the way for other species’ growth
D
32) When species do not interact and succession does not take place, the result is
A) nitrogen fixation
B) chronic patchiness
C) interference
D) succession
B
33) Early succession plants are:
A) plants of small stature that grow slowly with seed that stays close
B) larger plants, that enter and begin to germinate the site
C) mature plants; often forests
D) low growing plants that are specifically adapted to unstable conditions of the physical environment
D
34) When an ecosystem is disturbed by __________, changes occur in its biogeochemical cycling.
A) human activities
B) storms
C) fire
D) all of the above
D
35) Strip cutting in a forest is:
A) the practice of cutting less desirable trees first, and later cutting mature trees
B) the practice of cutting all trees except for a few individual seed trees
C) the practice of cutting dead and less desirable trees later, and cutting mature trees first
D) the practice of cutting narrow rows of trees, leaving wooded corridors
D
36) Tree growth rings are produced at the rate of _______per year.
A) one
B) two
C) three
D) five
A
37) Managing wildlife to keep populations at a constant level is not always successful because:
A) of increasing biodiversity
B) human dynamics
C) populations are naturally variable
D) none of the above
C
38) Nearly two-thirds of all the wood produced in the world is used for
A) firewood
B) paper
C) furniture
D) lumber
A
39) A natural, important ecological function of forests is:
A) silviculture
B) release of methane
C) erosion
D) maintaining watersheds
D
40) _________ founded the US Forest Service and practiced utilitarian conservation of forests.
A) Aldo Leopold
B) Gifford Pinchot
C) John Muir
D) none of the above
B
2) The concept of _____________ leads to _________ and _________
A) sustainable society, sustainable economy, sustainable development
B) sustainability, human population growth, recycling
C) climate change, sustainable society, sustainable development
D) Earth’s carrying capacity, sustainable society, climate change
A
4) ______-successional species grow well in shade and have seeds that can survive for a rather _____ period of time
A) Late, long
B) Early, long
C) Early, short
D) Alternative, short
A
5) What does the principle of “environmental unity” say?
A) Everything affects everything else
B) Humans are the fundamental environmental unit in nature
C) Nature can not be separated from humans
D) Nonhuman life is connected with nature in a different way than human life does
A
6) Disturbed ecosystems can recover naturally through __________.
A) ecological succession
B) heliotropism
C) weathering
D) radioactive decay
A
7) Douglas-fir regeneration responds well to __________.
A) Shade
B) Moist understory
C) Bog-like conditions
D) Full sun
D
8) An earthquake that occurs in the ocean can cause a ______________ when the water is suddenly dislocated en mass
A) tornado
B) cyclone
C) tsunami
D) hurricane
C
9) Ruminants, such as elk, have four-chambered stomachs teeming with billions of microbes. The bacteria digest woody tissue that the elk cannot fully digest on their own. The bacteria also convert nitrogen into organic compounds and give off fatty acids that benefit the elk. In return, the elk provide an environment that allows the bacteria to survive. In this case, both bacteria and elk are _________________ ___________________.
A) subordinate symbionts
B) obligate symbionts
C) falcultative symbionts
D) recreational symbionts
B
12) Thomas Malthus advocated that human population will
A) be reduced by our own vices, such as wars, epidemics, and famines
B) be reduced mainly because of the imminent implementations of one child policies in most of the countries around the world
C) will increase exponentially for approximately 35 years, and then reach a platue
D) will increase at rates that would allow humans to keep enjoying current standards of living
A
14) All individuals capable of interbreeding are a _____________
A) kingdom
B) species
C) community
D) ecosystem
B
16) The way a population or species has varied in number, from most to fewest, over a past time period is measured by a(n) ____ and is called the _____.
A) estimate, long-term population range
B) time series, historical range of variation
C) historical range of variation, migration history
D) time series, historical population balance
B
17) What is the “biosphere”?
A) The region of the Earth above soil level
B) The region of Earth where life exists
C) The region of the Earth where life cannot exist
D) The region of Earth protected by the atmosphere
B
18) DNA is short for
A) deoxyribonucleic acid
B) denitroficated acid
C) dinatural acid
D) denatured acid
A
19) Following a severe storm on the sand dunes of Oregon, the process of grasses becoming established followed by shrubs and eventually a forest growing on the dune is an example of what kind of natural process?
A) secondary succession
B) primary succession
C) erosion
D) allelopathy
A
20) As an alternative to clear-cutting, which forestry method removes all but a few mature trees with good genetic characteristics in order to promote regeneration of the forest?
A) Shelterwood cutting
B) Strip-cutting
C) Thinning from below
D) Seed-tree cutting
D
21) A collision of _______________ plates can lead to mountain building as well as subduction of the more dense plate, if any.
A) lavergent
B) divergent
C) convergent
D) transform
C
22) How long did it take for the radiation of Chernobyl to travel around the world to the Oak Ridge backyard grass clippings?
A) 1 year
B) 3 months
C) 2 weeks
D) 3 days
D
23) What is the correct chronological order of a demographic transition in western civilization?
A) Stage 1: birth rate declines, stage 2: high growth rate, stage 3: birth rate drops toward the death date rate, so growth declines
B) Stage 1: growth increase, stage 2: birth rate drops toward the death date rate, so growth declines, stage 3: birth rate declines
C) Stage 1: steady population growth, stage 2: birth rate increase, stage 3: birth rate decrease
D) Stage 1: rapid population growth, stage 2: birth rate dramatically decrease, stage 3: birth rate decrease
A
24) _______________________ ____________________ in the earth’s mantle lead to the movement of the plates
A) convection currents
B) corialis currents
C) convection heatwave
D) collision of air masses
A
25) _______ successional species are generally _______ growing
A) Late, slow
B) Pioneer, slow
C) Late, fast
D) Early, slow
A
26) Aldo Leopold, considered to be one of the great conservationists of the 20th century, developed the idea of “The Land Ethic”. This concept describes the philosophy that:
A) All of Earth’s resources have the right to exist in a natural state, and that human’s role should be that of citizen and protector instead of a conqueror of nature.
B) Maximum sustainable yield can be maintained by allowing 50% of a population to be harvested.
C) Forests provide “public-service functions”, also known as “ecosystem services”, and should be conserved to protect the interests of humankind.
D) The earth and its resources belong of right to the people.
A
27) In the case of the Isle Royale, a Minnesota experiment on predator/prey interactions, as the moose population increased the wolf population __________________ until the moose population decreased. The wolf population then______________________, indicating a possibility that the predator/prey interaction impacted the populations of both species.
A) decreased, increased
B) increased, decreased
C) increased, increased
D) decreased, decreased
B
28) The maximum lifetime (longevity) is determined by:
A) Health
B) Wealth
C) Genetics
D) Geographic location
C
29) In the competitive exclusion principle, when two species compete for the same resources with the same nutrient requirements, one species will ultimately
A) experience downturn and recovery
B) reproduce abundantly
C) thrive consistently
D) go extinct
D
30) Birth rates have ______ faster in countries that have a ______ standard of living than in countries with a ______ standard of living
A) increased, low, high
B) increased, high, low
C) declined, low, high
D) declined, high, low
D
32) If a species disappears from a part of its range, this is known as _____________ ___________________
A) local extinction
B) global extinction
C) endangered species
D) universal extinction
A
33) Biodiversity generally _________________ with increased latitude, and _______________ often substitutes for increased latitude
A) increases, altitude
B) declines, altitude
C) declines, longitude
D) increases, aspect
B
35) Which word best completes the following sentence: The human population has mostly grown _________
A) logarithmically
B) exponentially
C) linearly
D) constantly
B
36) The ____________ is one of the four major reservoirs of the biogeochemical cycle of planet Earth.
A) lithosphere
B) cryosphere
C) asthenosphere
D) ecosphere
A
40) What does the Gaia hypothesis propose?
A) Human population will continue increasing in an exponential way
B) Humans are the ultimate form of life on Earth
C) The environment at a global level has not been changed by life throughout history of life on Earth.
D) The environment at a global level has been changed by life throughout history of life on Earth, and that these changes have tended to improve the chances that life on Earth will continue
D
2) The plastics of the great ocean garbage dump are being broken down by a process known as photodegradation, in which
A) infrared, visible and ultraviolet light energy of sunlight breaks down molecules releasing toxins
B) temperature changes in the ocean breakdown molecules releasing toxins
C) chemical changes in the ocean breakdown molecules releasing toxins
D) wind in the ocean causes degradation releasing toxins.
A
3) In the discussion post “The Loss of Our Forests”, the term “frontier forest” refers to:
A) forest that has been planted to speed up successional development on abandoned agricultural lands
B) forest that has naturally regenerated following clear-cut logging operations
C) forest that remains intact, protecting biodiversity and sequestering greenhouse gases
D) tree farms used to supply wood for rural construction
C
4) Societies consisting of populations with exponential growth may exceed the area’s ____________________ and thus be unsustainable.
A) fuel quota
B) carrying capacity
C) resource potential
D) measured biostamina
B
5) The Gaia Hypothesis states that life _______ the environment for the ___________ of life.
A) manipulates, maintenance
B) maintains, manipulation
C) manipulates, exploitation
D) exploits, maintenance
A
6) In developed countries _____% of the people live in urban areas while ______% of the people live in rural areas.
A) 50, 50
B) 25, 75
C) 75, 25
D) 90, 10
C
7) Ecology is the study of
A) random relationships in nature between plants and animals
B) ecosystem growth and productivity
C) global climate change as it relates to organism
D) relationships between organisms and their environment.
D
8) An ecological justification places value on:
A) beauty and the aesthetic appeal to humanity.
B) ecosystem growth and productivity
C) the rightness or wrongness of an action
D) factors essential to life support functions of the ecosphere or ecosystem
D
9) Negative feedback occurs when ________ output
A) an increase in output leads to an increase in further
B) an increase in output leads to a decrease in further
C) there is no change in the system
D) serious environmental problems affect
B
10) What can cause a population to continue to increase after a crash in resources and subsequent reduced fertilization rate?
A) existing pregnancy
B) increase in disease
C) government intervention
D) increase in medicine
A
11) The equation for population change is:
A) (births + emigration) – (deaths + immigration)
B) (births + deaths) – (immigration + emigration)
C) (emigration + immigration) – (deaths + births)
D) (births + immigration) – (deaths + emigration)
D
13) Exponential growth:
A) occurs at a constant rate per time period.
B) occurs at an increasing rate per time period.
C) occurs at a decreasing rate per time period.
D) occurs at a equilibrium setting rate per time period.
A
14) The big six macronutrients include:
A) carbon, hydrogen, niacin, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur
B) carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, potassium, and sulfur
C) chlorine, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur
D) carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur
D
15) What kind of plate boundary occurs where two plates grind past each other without destroying or producing lithosphere?
A) divergent boundary
B) transitional boundary
C) convergent boundary
D) transform fault boundary
D
16) What type of boundary occurs where two plates move together, causing one plate to descend into the mantle beneath the other plate?
A) transform fault boundary
B) convergent boundary
C) divergent boundary
D) transitional boundary
B
17) The three types of rock include all EXCEPT:
A) metamorphic
B) igneous
C) multimorphic
D) sedimentary
C
18) Through the processes of heat, pressure or chemicals, sedimentary rock can become ________ rock
A) metamorphic
B) sedimentary
C) igneous
D) multimorphic
D
19) The largest sink of nitrogen on earth is:
A) oceans
B) atmosphere
C) land plants
D) soil
B
20) In the annual calcium cycle, the highest flux rates are in:
A) root leakage
B) loss to streams
C) loss to biosphere
D) biological uptake
D
21) The chemical equation for photosynthesis is:
A) 6CO2 + 6H20 + sunlight = C6H12O6 + 6O2
B) 6CO2 + 6O2 + sunlight = C6H12O6 + 6H20
C) C6H12O6 + 6H20 + sunlight = 6CO2 + 6O2
D) 6CO2 + 6H20 + sunlight = C6H12O6 + 6O2
A or D
22) Free nitrogen (N2 uncombined with other elements) makes up about what _____% of EarthOs atmosphere:
A) 45
B) 25
C) 95
D) 79
D
24) Chronic diseases are present in a _______ but _______ percentage of the population and include diseases such as heart disease, cancer and strokes.
A) large, constant
B) small, constant
C) small, fluxuating
D) large, fluxuating
B
25) In acute or epidemic diseases, a disease appears _________ in the population and affects a _______ percentage of the population and then _________ or almost disappears, only to ________ later.
A) slowly, large, declines, reappear
B) rapidly, large, increases, reappear
C) rapidly, large, declines, reappear
D) rapidly, large, declines, disappear
C
26) An ecosystem is
A) a community of species and their nonliving environment in which nutrients flow and chemicals cycle.
B) a community of genuses and their nonliving environment in which energy flows and chemicals cycle.
C) a community of species and their nonliving environment in which energy flows and nectar cycles.
D) a community of species and their nonliving environment in which energy flows and chemicals cycle.
D
28) An organismOs realized temperature niche
A) the set of environmental conditions within which a species is able to persist
B) the temperature range in which an organism occurs when there is no competition from other organisms
C) the temperature range in which an organism occurs when there is competition from other organisms
D) the point at which the organisms resource needs overlap causing competition
C
30) Biological evolution .
A) can move forwards and backwards
B) is always an effect of migration
C) can result in new species
D) is always beneficial to the species
C
31) According to Chapter 5 of the text, justifications for saving endangered species include all of the following EXCEPT
A) Cultural Justification
B) Moral Justification
C) Economic Justification
D) Aesthetic and Spriritual Justification
C
32) Which of the following does NOT contribute to the shrinking of wetlands?
A) closing of canals and navigation channels
B) land conversion for agriculture
C) rise in sea levels
D) building of levees
A
33) Which does NOT result in an increase in biodiversity?
A) increase in habitat complexity
B) complex topography
C) increase in agriculture
D) natural disturbances
C
34) Ombrotrophic systems, such as bogs, are characterized by:
A) all of their nutrients coming from the air or rain
B) all of their nutrients coming from mountain-fed streams
C) all of their nutrients coming from photosynthesis
D) all of their nutrients coming from insect pollination
A
35) The following are ecosystems we may label as being in a secondary successional stage EXCEPT
A) temperate grassland
B) temperate forest
C) fresh lava rock
D) lakes and oceans
C
36) When dune grass prepares a way for other species to grow, it is an example of _________.
A) facilitation
B) interference
C) establishment
D) preparation
A
37) Gifford Pinchot and Teddy Roosevelt coined the term conservation, meaning
A) the full use of all natural resources authorized by governmental act
B) preservation of all natural resources, whether governmental or civilian
C) preservation and wise use of all natural resources
D) preservation and wise use of all natural resources as are economically feasible
C
38) Which of the following did NOT contribute to spotted owls population drop in the U.S.?
A) competition with barred owls
B) overhunting
C) West Nile virus
D) reduction of old-growth forest
B
3) The science dedicated to “returning damaged, degraded or destroyed ecosystems to some set of conditions considered functional, sustainable and natural” is called:
A) Successional Ecology
B) Evolutionary Ecology
C) Population Ecology
D) Restoration Ecology
D
4) A smoke stack releasing toxic metals is an example of a _________ source pollution.
A) mobile
B) released
C) point
D) continuous
C
5) The different types of habitats in a given unit area is a measure of
A) divergent evolution
B) habitat diversity
C) species diversity
D) genetic drift
B
6) Primary succession is
A) the initial establishment and development of an ecosystem where one did not exist before
B) re-establishment of an ecosystem following disturbance
C) the tendency of some trees to re-sprout from their stump after they have been cut down, struck by lightning, or otherwise damaged
D) the creation of genetically identical offspring following asexual reproduction
A
7) There has/have been _______ mass extinctions on Earth
A) one
B) two
C) four
D) six
D
8) In deserts or other environments where species do not interact and succession is limited, the result is called:
A) chronic patchiness
B) intermediate succession
C) desertification
D) mosaicing
A
10) The geologic cycle consists of the
A) tectonic, rock and biogeochemical cycles
B) tectonic, limnic, and biogeochemical cycles
C) hydrologic, rock and biogeochemical cycles
D) tectonic, hydrologic, rock, and biogeochemical cycles.
D
11) Which of the following statements defines OpopulationO?
A) a group of individuals of different species, living in the same area
B) all individuals that are capable of interbreeding
C) a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area, and sharing genetic information
D) a group of individuals of different species sharing genetic information
C
12) The most abundant species in a system is known as the
A) dominant species
B) keystone species
C) obligate sybiont
D) facultative symbionts
A
12) The most abundant species in a system is known as the
A) dominant species
B) keystone species
C) obligate sybiont
D) facultative symbionts
A
14) Which of the following is not a characteristic of an ecosystem?
A) Are composed of, among other things, a community of organisms
B) Are composed of, among other things, non living organisms
C) They all are similar in size
D) Energy flows through them
C
15) Indirect deforestation is defined as:
A) Interference with secondary succession
B) The death of trees due to pollution or disease
C) Shelterwood cutting
D) Cutting down forest and replanting with a single species
B
17) What is the fundamental issue in Environmental Science?
A) Water pollution
B) Air pollution
C) Human population growth
D) Ozone layer depletion
C
18) If a volcano becomes extinct after thousands of years being active and plants begin to grow where there was formerly hot lava, this is an example of what kind of natural process?
A) primary succession
B) secondary succession
C) altruism
D) condensation
A
22) Sedimentary rock forms from
A) accumulation of weathered material in depositional basins.
B) rocks exposed to heat, pressure or chemically active fluids.
C) molten material such as lava, are broken down by physical and chemical weathering.
D) rocks exposed to heat, pressure or chemically active fluids, broken down by physical and chemical weathering.
A
25) What an organism does for a living (its profession) is its:
A) biological edge
B) ecological niche
C) ecosystem
D) habitat
B
26) What percentage of the wood currently used in the United States is produced in the United States?
A) 90%
B) 33%
C) 2%
D) 66%
B
27) The growth of weeds in an abandoned urban lot is an example of what kind of ecological succession?
A) primary
B) secondary
C) symbiotic
D) generalistic
B
29) Which of the following countries have implemented a Oone child policyO to slow population growth?
A) Canada
B) China
C) Chile
D) Cameroon
B
31) Which of the following factors is not a short-term factor that limits population growth?
A) Drought
B) Disruption to energy supply
C) Diseases
D) Climate change
D
32) Which of the following scenarios is an example of “chronic patchiness”?
A) Two cactus species in a desert environment grow far apart from each other and do not interfere with each other’s growth.
B) Bamboo and Imperata grass replace each other as the dominant species in parts of the Philippines.
C) Fire causes an opening in densely matted grass allowing red cedar to take hold.
D) Large pines provide shade for oak saplings, allowing the oak to eventually become the dominant species.
A
34) In _________ a single species that is isolated far apart on different islands can be separated into multiple distinct species. Each group responds and adapts to its own environment. For instance, on an island with large fruit seeds, a small beaked finch may not do well, however a large beaked finch has just the right apparatus to break the seed, therefore its genes have the opportunity to move to the next generation.
A) gamma radiation
B) nuclear radiation
C) adaptive radiation
D) comparative radiation
C
35) How a population or species varied in number, from most to fewest, over a past time period is measured by a(n) ____ and is called the _____.
A) estimate, long-term population range
B) time series, historical range of variation
C) historical range of variation, migration history
D) time series, historical population balance
B
38) The relative abundance of a species is known as the ___________ .
A) species relativity
B) species delineation
C) species index
D) species evenness
D
40) Igneous rock forms from
A) molten material such as lava, broken down by physical and chemical weathering.
B) accumulation of weathered material in depositional basins.
C) sedimentary rocks exposed to heat, pressure or chemically active fluids.
D) sedimentary rocks exposed to heat, pressure or chemically active fluids, broken down by physical and chemical weathering.
A
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