EVS 195
Wildernes Act
Sets aside forests as wilderness-not national parks.

National Environmental Policy Act

1969

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to use all practical means and measures underwhich man and nature can be in harmony

Clean Air Act Amendments

1970-1990

Congress got EPA to list pollutants and came up with a standard for each pollutant (national ambient air standards). In 1990: prohibited states from suing each other over boarder lines. Set cap on sulfur dioxide, created emissions credits.

Federal Water Pollution Amendments

1972

penalties for violations and saught to eliminate pollutants in water by 1985. Didn’t work. Get’s amended all the time.

Endangered Species Act

1973

Esthetic, ecological, educational, historical, recreational and scientific means to preserveit. Taking a species is prohibited only on government land but not public land. 1978 amended to include economic means to reorganize a species.
GOD SQUAD
Have the right to destroy a species. Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of the Interior, the Chair of the Council of Economic Advisors, the Secretary of the Army, the head of the EPA, the head of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and a state representative are considered in the God Squad.

National Forest Management Act

1976

Wanted timber men to mark every tree they cut since the growing tree cutting from WWII. Men were coming back and people were getting homes made of wood. Huge demand. Was rewritten:public must participate in planning. Guidelines for controversial management

Alaska National Interests Land Conservation Act

1980

attempted to keep peace with conservationists. native americans, and industrials. settle the fight. creates 9 new parks and 35 new wilderness areas. artic national wildlife refuge, Carters last wish was to seal up Alaska
PM 10 Standard
required how much of a substance can be released at once into atmosphere.
Air Pollution Act
Strengthens EPA’s right to legistlate and;enforce. Companies must show;how they are going to handle spills.

Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Mangmt Act

1996

Developes US fisheries, fazes out fishers on coast, conserves. sets oceans as exclusive economic zone. Addresses overfishing and breeding. IFQ=fishing quotas

Solid Waste Agency (SWANK) v. Army Court of Eng.

2001

any wetland connected to another source must be protected. army corp sued for not being responsible for wetlands. impt bc effect bird migration. Reasonable Duck Rule=any wetland where a duck would go must be protected.
Nixon Administration

EPA Created

Republican

Carter Administration

1979 Dept of Energy created

Antiquities Act: 3x wildlife refuge and 2x natl parks

Helped create superfund Program

Reagan Adm

1980 increased timber and mining on federal lands

research $ cut

lowered water and air standards

Sagebrish Rebellion: Wester states didnt like federal influence

Wise Use Movement: wanted to use natl parks land more efficiently: more activities.

Clinton Adm

1990s protected large areas in lower 48 states thru Antiquities Act

EVA movement stengthened

more reasearch and data

protection of marine estuary areas (new idea)

George W Adm

EPA finding reduced

air and water standards relaxed

research funding cut

increased private use of federal lands for energy/minerals/timber

said no to kyoto

protected hawaiian marine sanctuary

Statistics

can either summarize data or make inferences
Probablility Sampling
each sample has a distinct, determinant chance of being selected
Matter
Has mass thats affected by gravity and is occupied by space
Elements
Material that cant be broken down without changing it
Compounds
2 or more elements held together by bonds
mixtures
combo of 1 or more elements and compounds
atom
smallest portion of an element

Atomic#

Atomic Mass

#=protons in a nucleus

mass=combo of protons and neutrons

Uranium 235
only isotope that is fissionable.
ion
can gain or lose an ELECTRON
isotope
can gain or lose a PROTON
Canion
positive
Anion
Negative
Most matter exisits as what?
COMPOUNDS!
Which are stronger: Covalent or Ionic?
IONIC
Organic Coumpounds
find this out!
Inorganic Compounds
this too
What are the states of matter?

Solid

Liquid

gas

Plasma

Fussion

Fission

Fussion=Joining

Fission=Separating

Stars are made up of what?
Plasma
Radiation
transfer of kinetic energy by wave motion

Radioactivity

nuclear atoms shoot chunks of mass and energy @ fixed rate.
2nd law of thermodynamics
eventually energy will run out. US has 16% energy efficiency rate
Ecology
how organisms interract and the non-living world. human ecology=what we extract

Organism

any form of life. prokarotic(no nucleus)

eukaryotic (nucleus!)

species
must be fertile!
List order of kingdoms

kingdom

phylum

class

order

family

genus

species

Population
group of individuals at the same area at the same time
Biosphere
all ecosystems combined
Albedo

reflectivity rate.

2/3rds of energy from sun is reflected back into space

Fragmentation
when companies sell their property to bigger corporate. shift species tracts. ex wolves

Single species management:

Keystone

Umbrella

Flagship

Indicator

1) enrich ecosystem function (beavers)

2) covers large areas in daily seasonal movements

3) CHARISmatic:pandas/ sea turtles

4) linked to specific biological elements: spotted owls/ woodpecker

Corridors
places for animals to reproduce. Impervious surface: degree of human impact
Restoration

Restoring highly degraded but localized sites

Improving productive capability in degraded production lands.

Enhancing conservation values in protected lanscapes.

Enhancing conservation calues in productive landscapes.

Ecological Restoration
Assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed.
Democratic Restoration

Funding: corps fund a lot of restoration for public relations, this fades if it is seen as bad.

Public Participation: not experts so invalid

Unresponsive and less affect.

May not want to participate.

Anti-Restoration Thesis
says its fake in nature. if we accept this than any ecosystem can be destroyed so must protect wilderness.
Restoration Thesis
admits that resored land is not the same but reduces human pressure. think that technology can be pulled off. says that the things that cant be replicated arent important anyways.
Deep Ecology

says that humans are a part of a landscape and humans must be integrated.

William Cronum: says impossible to create wilderness. no such thing as anything that hasnt been touch by humans.

Thomas Malthus says human population is controls by 3 things:

War, Famine, Disease.

Competitive advantage and traits will pass on. Overpopulation, variation, limits to growth( anything that causes mortality reduces reproduction)

Reproductive Success:

have to be able to reproduce; and pass traits (meaning raise the organism w/ those traits)

Henry Cowles
species change due to their landscape overtime
Fredrick Clements
depending on climate-every ecosystem will have a climax in regional climate
H. Gleason
THinks that species go thru change at random and independently. Disturbance CLimax: random environmental disaster that supports ecosystem. ex pines spike during hurricanes.
What is always the first thing to grown when a place has been wiped out?
LICHEN!
Island Biogeography
Looks at how fast things disperse across a landscape
Secondary Sucession
resetting a previous ecosystem to an earlier state
Three Forms of Symbiosis

results from co-evolution. when one species lives on top of or on other species.

Three forms:

Mutualism: both benefit

Cometualism: One is benefited and the other not effected

Partalism: one is benefited at the expense of the other

Microsymbiosis
plants growing underneath and share nutrients like the hyphi mushrooms intertwined in the roots of a tree
Hydrolic Cycle
everything runs down and eventually enters the ocean. All plants are breathing and releasing water into the atmosphere.
Evapotranspiration
84% of it comes from the Oceans. Water in atmosphere from oceans.
Carbon Cycle

going in and out of oceans and plants. things go to bottom of ocean and carbon setiment high. during plate tectonics sediment moves and carbon can re-enter the atmosphere.

*less oxygen in hot water so not as many organisms

CAFO
Confined Area Feeding Operation
Phosphorous Cycle
PO 4 is a limiting substance that algae will use up. used to be in detergents but not anymore. NC #1 supplier for phosphorous.
Sulfur Cycle

stored in organic materials and minerals.

-thu volcanic eruptions

-Sulfuric acid causes acid rain.

Human impact= burning coal, copper, sulfur mining.

Biosphere

Terrestrial and Aquatic

Ecotone=middle bt regions

Ecocline=no clear barrier

Food CHain v. Food web
food chain has only 4 trophic levels adn the food web has higher diversity
SOIL
Formed by weathering of preexisting surface minerals. decomposistion. over 2500 minerals. 92% of these are scilicates
Igneous Rocks
cooling and crstalization of molten materials
Metamorphic Rock
Preexisiting rock that has been under pressure or heated up below melting point
Sedimentary Rock
stone from form sediment

Unloading

Crystal Growth

Roots

Sand Blasted Wind

;

-runoff with cracks real rock

-can crack rock apart

-can make its way into rocks and break

get into cracks

;

Hydrolosis

Acidation

Oxidation

1) chemical compound is broken down by water

2) Broken down by acid

3) oxidation # changes

Rate of Weathering
depends on climate/temperature, higher temps have faster composition and surface area. Soil=marginally renewable resource.

Soil Structure

O A=rich in organic matter

B =accumulation

C= weathering soil, little organic matter

R= parent material

[image]

Ultisols

Aluminum and iron (rusted and turned red)
Aridisoils
Arid, desert soils with calcium carbonate.
Oxisols

tropical rainforests

few organic matter

Aluminum rich

Mollisols

midwest prarie, recent and glacially driven,;

richest in the country

Histosols

richest in terristrial deversity

pete soils

Spodosols
N forests and coastal plains
Entisols
Beach dunes
waterlogging
water that sits ontop of clay right below the roots and gets trapped.

Agriforestry

alternate forests with crops slows evaporation and more efficient.

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