EVS Exam 1
Early Societies
2000 Kcals/day/person (minimum)
Hunt./gath. and adv. hunt./gath.
small population with little env. effect
Agricultural Revolution
12,000 Kcals/dar/person
10,000-12,000 years ago — switch from h/g to agr.
settlements
slash and burn
low population density ad pop. growth
Industrial Revolution
60,000 Kcals/day/person
change from renewable to non-renewable resources
urban
reliable food supply=longer life-span
pop. begins to increase rapidly
Information and Globalization
125,000 Kcals/day/person(260,00 for US)
rapid acquisition of technology and information
better understanding of env. and problems
use of more resources and energy
Tribal Era
Native American — primarily h/g with little impact
Frontier Era
world belongs to man
resources are inexhaustible
Gov. land to private sector
Homestead Act of 1862
Gov. closed frontier in 1890
Early Conservation
1832-1870
Resource depletion and degradation
set aside public lands as wilderness
Early Conservation
Thoreau, Marsh, Audubon
Conservation 1870-1930
Forest Reserve act of 1891
John Muir
Teddy Roosevelt
After WW2 promoted resource removal from public lands
John Muir
started Sierra Club in 1892
leader of Preservation Movement
Teddy Roosevelt
Power to designate wilderness refuges
1905-Nat’l Forest Service
1906- Antiquities Act
When was the Nat’l Park Service established?
1916
FDR
bought large tracts of land from private sector
civilian conservation corp(CCC)
TVA- build dams, hydro-power, reforest areas
Soil Conservation Act
Silent Spring
Rachel Carson
1962
Wilderness Essay’s
Wallace Stegner
1962
Wilderness Act of 1964
protect undeveloped land as part of National Wilderness System
Population Bomb
Paul Ehrlich
1968
addressed over population and depletion of resources
When was the first earth day?
1970
EPA established
1970
Endangered Species Act
1973
Federal Gov. protects animals and plants
Bald Eagle
Clean Air Act
1977
regulations to control air pollution
Clean Air Act driving forces
acid rain (1972)
CFC’s destroy ozone (1974)
Department of Energy
1979
formed to oversee energy use and regulate energy production
Department of energy driving forces
3 mile island
oil embargo
President Carter
uses antiquities act to triple wildlife system and Nat. Parks
President Regan
increased timber and mining on federal land , cut research money, and lowered air and water quality standards
President Clinton
uses antiquities act in lower 48 states
strengthens env. movement
President Bush
cuts EPA funding, research money,
relaxes air and water standards
increases private use of federal lands
Matter
has mass and occupies spaces
exists in elements and compounds
Elements
115 known
92 natural and 23 man made
arranged by physical properties in periodic table
building clocks of elements
protons, neutrons and electrons
ion
atom that has an electrical charge
isotope
atom with different number of neutrons
8 common elements of the earth’s crust
O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg
Compounds
combo of elements
most matter is in this form
Ionic Bonds
opposite charges attract
most compounds
Covalent bonds
atoms share electrons
Organic
C, H, O, N, P, Cl, F with C-H covalent bond
natural or man made
Inorganic
all non- C-H compounds
all minerals and most rocks
Mixture
physical not chemical combo
Energy
Ability to do work
Potential Energy
stored energy, or the capacity to perform work
Kinetic Energy
energy that does work on something and/or energy of motion and reaction
Solar Energy
electro magnetic radiation
gamma rays to radio waves(short to long wavelength)
Internal Energy
heat from formation of earth and breakdown of radioactive elements
Heat
kinetic energy of object
Temperature
measure of kinetic energy
heat transfer
convection, conduction, radiation
Law of conservation of matter
the earth is a closed system
Pollution
resource out of place
Pollution effect
depends on:
type, concentration, persistence, degradable, slowly degradable, non-degradable
radioactivity
constant, spontaneous breakdown of matter
half-life
10 half-lives for matter to be safe
Genetic Damage
internal damage from Beta Particles and Gamma ray
Somatic
tissue damage
burns, skin cancer
1st law of thermodynamics
conservation of energy
2nd law of thermodynamics
energy is degraded
Ecology
how organisms interact with each other and non-living environment
Species
1.8 million known
3 to 100 million may exist(10 million likely)
species extinction rate
9 species/day
population
group of individuals of the same species
Community
population of different species in the same place at the same time
Ecosystem/biome
community of different species and non-living env.
Biosphere
all eco-systems
Non-living systems
hydrosphere (fresh and salt water)
cryosphere(ice)
lithosphere(rocks and minerals)
atmosphere(troposphere and stratosphere)
Biosphere is maintained by
one way flow of energy
cycling of water
gravity
Solar energy input and output
most input as visible light
30% reflected 70% absorbed. .023% photosynthesis
output as heat into space
Hydrologic Cycle
water recycled and purified
human impact
Carbon Cycle
CO2 in atoms. Used in photosynthesis
passed to animals
back to soil and water
CO2 in and out of ocean
Human impact
Nitrogen Cycle
78% of atmosphere – not usable
Nitrogen fixing bacteria in ammonia
Other bacteria to nitrate
taken in by plants and animals
Decomposes back to gas
human impact
Phosphorus Cycle
Cycle from rocks to water to critters
Human impact
Sulfur Cycle
modeling of natural systems
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