(Phylum) Sponge-like form, open atrium inside. Water flows through, filters with flagellum that push food into prorsites. Spicules provide strucure. Internal surface area determines feeding capabilities, need to maximize ratio with volume
(Phylum) Contains classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Anthozoa (Hydras, jellies, coral). Polyp form- benthic. Medusa form – tentacles and pelagic. One gastoral system opening. Nematocysts that are triggered (cnidocil), either are sticky, long, or toxic
Cnideria -> Hydrozoa
(Class) Medusa form – umbrella-like dome with tentacles, manubrium structured. Begins life in polyp colony, medusae detach, produce eggs and a new colony (alternation of generation)
Cnideria -> Scyphozoa
(Class) “True jellyfish”. Thick mesoglea, no velum under umbrella, small tentacles, long oral arms. Polyp stage reproduces asexually, morphs into medusa stage. Strobulating is popping off of “ripe” medusas, triggered by temperature.
Cnideria -> Anthozoa
(Class) Sea anemone, corals. Tentacles with nematocysts, single mouth opening. Pharanx opening on the middle close to mouth (sea anemones), some burrow and trap food that passes by.
(Phylum) Contains orders: Cydippida, Lobata, Cestida, Berioda. Similar to Cnideria, but without nematocysts. Sphere-like, has 4 cten rows on each side, 8 total. Comb Rows made up of fused scilia (can be bioluminescent) . Rolls around food objects to maneuver it into the mouth. Anus and mouth. Statolith allows knowledge or orientation by nudging hairs. Light sensing
Ctenophora -> Lobates
(Order) Looks like cydippids when younfer, then loose their tentacles. Cten rows on 2 lobes.
Ctenophora -> Cestida
(Order) Long (~1m), flat structured, with comb rows on edges, mouth in the middle. Have tiny tentacles.
Ctenophora -> Beroids
(Order) More pigmented b/c more proteins. Barrel/tube shaped. Eats other ctenophora, particularly lobates. Mouth at one end, scilia rows near mouth act as a “saw” to consume food (8in long)
(Phylum) Contains classses: Cestoda, Trenatoda, Turbelleria. Regenerative and parasitic. Turbellaria are benthic or pelagic, have a mucus covered underside to slide over sediments (ventril surface). Senses light, one gut opening
(Phylum) Quite small, almost on the scale of sperm. Parasitic worms, covered with scilia.
(Phylum) called “Probocis worms”, typically slender, a few mm to inches. Differ from flatworms, have complete digestive tract. Male and female forms. Laws down mucus, move with scilia on epidermis. Probocis pushed out of pore when outer tube contracts and it inverts. Retractors pull it back in, often has stylet on the inside, can be used for hunting or defense, separate from mouth. Carnivorous, feeds on worms or crustaceans.
(Phylum) Live in interstitial spaces between sand grains. Have modified scales, very small
(Phylum) Solitary, free-living multiscopic organisms. Smallest of metazoa animals. Corona, which can by highly sciliated or not, tend to spin in water currents. Suspension feeders (water moves, filters food) or raptorial feeders (goes to catch prey).
(Phylum) Live in muddy bottoms. One way gut passage. Cylindrical, elastic pharynx. Pulses head region through mud w/ pharynx, recurved spines allow it to grip and move forward. Mouth surrounded by spines, consumes benthic diatoms.
(Phylum) Round worms. Muscles are lateral, nor many circular contractions. Can push against sand grains to move. Extremely common. Can be parasitic, live inside arthropods. Horsehair worms are an example, thing and long
(Phylum) Three main orders: Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Hinudinea. Leeches, found in fresh water only. Segmentation, body divided and arrange in linear series. Allows movement by expansion and contraction (parastalsis), both kinds of muscles. Hydraulic skeletons.
Annelida -> Polychaeta
(Order) Aggregation of sensory organs at head, antenna, etc. Past first segment, all segments are simlar. Each segment has a fleshy parapodia, dorsal cirrus used to crawl. Chitin material, rigid structures. Lifestyle 1: crawling on benthos. #2: Pelagic. #3: Burrowing. #4: Tube-dwilling, double ended tubes allow for excrement, feather dusterss feed at one end. Some have tentacles. #5: Boring w/ acid.
(Phylum) Five major classes in decreasing primitive-ness: Polyplacophora, Scaphopoda, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopda. Foot used to move over bottom. Typically a shell created by mantle cells. Radula,
Mollusca -> Polyplacophora
(Class) Has a shell, 8 plates, that articulate and allow movment. Can form suction w/ foot+mantle, which is strong but halts breathing. High energy, rocky, coastal environments, bends over obstacles.
Mollusca -> Scaphopoda
(Class) called “Tusk Shells”. Live modtly buried. Elastic threads (catptacula) with sticky ball, organic material sticks to it. Moantle tissue is vascularized, serves as gills. One opening for water coming in and out.
Mollusca -> Gastropoda
Mollusca -> Bivalvia (Tasty!)
(Class) Two lateral shells, adductor muscle opens and closes. ligament pulls is open when muscle doesn’t pull. Foot, amntle, gills. Inhalant siphon, exhalant siphon. Gills can filter as well as respire. Some clams burrow down, pulled by dilated foot. Oysters use a permanent adhesive, Muscles use Byssal threads to attach
Mollusca -> Cephalopoda
(Class) Nautilus, Squid, Octopus, etc. Most deviated from other mollusks, more advanced, better developed eyes, less insulation on reina allows better vision in low light. Squid have 8 arms and 2 tentacles, tentacles have spikes or suckers, mouth + 2 jaws, ink, water propulsion through flexible valve, pelagic. Octopi are benthix, similar to squids, nocturnal, live in laris, very smart, redulas, can bore through shells in funnel shape and suck out materials
Mollusca -> Gastropoda -> Conus
(Species) HAve a sack that produces radular teeth, brings them to mouth area, looks like harpoon. Injects prey with tooth, poison paralyses it and it swallows it whole.
Arthropoda -> Crustacea
(Sub Phylum) Have head appendages: 1st antennae, 2nd antennae, mandibles, 1st maxillae, 2nd maxillae. Thorax and abdomen. Exoskeleton means molting must occur to grow, calcium helps new shells harden.
Arthropoda -> Crustacea -> Cephalocardia
(Class) Horseshoe shaped head, not much info
Arthropoda -> Crustacea -> Branchiopoda
(Class) Can grow its covering, transparent. Composed laterally, uses gills. 2nd antennae is large, split in tow, uses it to swim. Both benthic and pelagic species. Feeds on organic materials
Arthropoda -> Crustacea -> Ostracoda
(Class) Body encased in a (bi)valve structure. Head region dominant, bethos + water column. Transparent valve, antennae help move, filter feeder.
Anthropoda -> Crustacea -> Copepoda
(Class) Ubiquitous in marine envrionments. Long and branching anteennae. Spines on antennae sense water movement and chemicals. Active filter feeders, captures particles by waving appendages, manipulating viscous forces.
Anthropoda -> Crustacea -> Cirripedia
(Class) Barnacles. Attach to a surface for life, covered with growable plates. Grow in groups, larvae sense released pherhormones. Two plates at the top that can be pulled in and opened. Thoractic appendages, modified to be cirri, passive filter feeding. Live in intertidal zone, plates closed when exposed.
Anthropoda -> Crustacea -> Malacostraca
(Class) 75% of crustaceans, very tasty. Some have a carpace that covers the thoractic segments. 8 thorax segments, 6 abdominal.
(Order) Blue crabs – **Callinectese sapidus** Claws are part of thorax appendages, abdomen is pulled up underneath thorax.
(Species) Blue crabs. Females only exeprience one terminal molt, males arrive early to guarantee they will be there to mate. Females store sperm in ducts, can have multiple clutches. Eggs hatch, swim up column towards light as zoea. Motling stages, evolves into a megalops, then eventually a mature crab, ~3yr lifecycle. Zoea swim up at bay mouth, are taken out to sea, blown south by winds. Further out to sea, return at megalops in a loop, become benthic and migrate back up bay.
Anhtropoda -> Chelicerata -> Merostomata
(Class) Horseshoe crabs. Benthic, shallower areas, water flows over shell. Long tail called telson. Move inland during high tide to molt away from predators. Blood has medicinal properties.