exam 1
how do we know about the earth’s interior?
From seismic waves
How are silica context and viscosity related?
High silica is equal to high viscosity and Low silica is equal to low viscosity
what is the approx. distance from the surface to the center of the earth?
6400 km
Which layer in the earth does not transmit s-waves?
Outer core
how thick is the crust?
between 5 and 30 km. Continental toward 80 km
the partially molten layer beneath the lithosphere is called the :
astheriosphere
What element makes up most of the earth’s core?
iron/nickel
What does the elastic rebound theory describe?
maximum stress before rupture ( how earth bends and rebounds to original structure).
which if the following types of seismic waves arrive at a seismometer first?
p-wave

Mt. Saint helens is associated with a ____ plate boundary.

 

convergent
how do rock particles move during the passage of a P wave through rock?
rock particals move parallel to the wave.
what is the minimum number of seismograph stations needed to locate the epicenter of an earthquake?
3
the energy released during a magnitude 8 earthquake is approx ____ times greater than the energy released during magnitude 6 earthquake.
900 times

how well can scientists predict earthquakes?

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not very well—not there yet—no ability/technology to inform.
what particles are found in atoms
electrons,protons and neutrons
what is an isotope?
has same # of protons but # of neutrons differ
what mineral is the hardest known substance in nature?
diamond
what is a dip slip fault?
normal, reverse, and thrust faults
a cubic centimeter of quartz, olivine, and gold weigh 2.5 3.0 abd 19.8g respectively. This indicates that _____
gold has high density/ gravity
what was mohorovicic’s major contribution to geology?
suggested/ showed evidence that earth was layered known for moho—crust/mantic founder
fault and name types.
FUN, HUR, left lateral.
which region of earth is molten?
outer core
which region of earth consists primarily of solid iron?
inner core
in which region of earth does convection take place?
mantle
what boundary did ingle lehmann discover?
inner and outter core boundaries, BEANO—core mantle boundaries.
BOHENS REACTION SERIES. which mineral would you expect to see as a phenocryst n porphyritic basalt?
alavine
which igneous rocks exhibit aphantic (fine grained) texture?
basalt, anasite, ryalite,
igneous rock exhibits phaneritic ( course grained)texture
gathro, diarite, granite.
a _____ texture indicates two distinctly different size of mineral grain.
Porphoritic
which igneous rock or magma has the lowest silica content?
basalt or gabro—-> 45%-53%
a _____ volcano is a large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic lava flows
shield
what shows the correct order of decreasing magma viscosity?
granite, diarite, gabro
which type of volcanoes comprises the cascade and andean ranges?
stratle volcano
which foundation material is the most stable during earthquake shaking?
bed-rock
the ____ magnitude scale is a measure of the energy released. it does not directly measure the extent of building damage.
ricchtor
THe _____ of the earth does not transmit s waves.
outter core
given that the epicenter was more than 200 miles away, why was there such massive damage during the mexico city earthquake?
amplified solid waves because subsurface was not as solid as bedrock
hardness scale was developed by?
Fredrick MOh
which is the first mineral and last mineral to crystallize out of a melt?
alavine is first, quartz is last
Do earthquakes kill people? How do people die in earthquakes?
No earthquakes do not kill people. The effects of earthquakes kill people i.e. falling buildings—floods.
WHat set off the eruption of Mt. St. helens
a landslide
same as 21
how did the krafts die, in dvd we watched?
pyroflastic flow
David Johnston, a 30 yr old volcanologist, was killed in 1980 mt. St. helen’s eruption. what were his last words?
Vancouver, Vancouver–this is it!
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