final
Convergent boundary
pushed toward each other
Divergent boundary
moving away from each other
Transform fault boundary
slide from side to side
Volcano
mountains formed by magma from Earth’s interior
Active volcanoes
currently erupting or have erupted in recorded history
Dormant volcanoes
never known to erupt
Extinct volcanoes
never erupt again
Rift volcanoes
plates move away from each other
Subduction volcanoes
plates collide and slide over each other
Hot spot volcanoes
found at areas where magma rises to surface, Hawaiian islands
Sedimentary
sediments build up and compress, limestone
Metamorphic
pressure and heat applied to rock inside Earth’s mantle, slate
Igneous
rock melts and resolidifies, magma comes to surface, emerges as lava, cools to make rock, basalt
troposphere
weather, clouds
tropopause
temp increases)
stratosphere
greenhouse effect from ozone
mesosphere
meteors burn up
thermosphere
aka ionosphere, absorbs solar wind from Sun
Weather
day to day temperature, pressure, sunlight, wind speed, humidity
Climate
constant patterns of an area
Tilt on Earth’s axis
causes seasons
Convection currents
vertical currents that rise from warm gases expanding and becoming less dense
Dew point
temperature water vapor condenses into liquid
Precipitation
fallen condensation (frozen or liquid)
Rain shadow effect
air from body of water moves inland and runs into mountain, rises and on other side, no moisture left
Hurricane
intense tropical storms (typhoon or cyclone in Pacific Ocean)
Watershed
where water from a particular stream collects and drains into
Delta
where rivers meet ocean, made of deposited sediments
Estuary
freshwater and saltwater mix, rich with species
Wetlands
marshes, swamps, bogs, prairie potholes, flood plains, ecologically diverse
Groundwater
water below ground, can be from wells or aquifers (layers of Earth or gravel with water)
Littora
shallow water at shoreline
Limnetic
open water, sunlight can penetrate
Profundal
no sunlight (aphotic)
Benthic zone
low temp and low oxygen
Coastal zone
between shore and end of continental shelf
Euphotic zone
upper layers of water
Bathyal
no photosynthesis, middle region
Abyssal zone
deep ocean, very cold, little dissolved oxygen, high nutrients
O horizon
surface and plant litter, lots organic matter, fungi, freshly fallen
A horizon
topsoil, lots of organic matter, mineral material, humus, partially decomposed
C horizon
regolith, partially broken down inorganic materials, parent material
R horizon
bedrock, unaltered parent material
Sheet erosion
thin layer taken off land surface
Soil Fertility
capacity to supply nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) for plant growth
Infiltration
Infiltration
Salinization
mineral salts accumulate in soil, saline irrigation
Deserts
Less than 25 cm rain per year, sandy soil
Lots of cacti b/c water-adapted
30 degrees north and south of equator
Chaparral
50-75 cm rain, shallow infertile soil
Small trees w/ big leaves, shrubs
Western North America, Mediterranean
Tundra
Less than 25 cm rain, permafrost for soil
Small herbaceous plants
Northern parts of North America, Europe, and Russia
Grasslands
10-60 cm rain, rich soil
Many types of grasses
N. America prairies, S. African velds, Russian steppes, Argentinean pampas
Deciduous Forest
75-250 cm, high rainfall, rich soil
Hardwood trees
N. America, E. Asia, Europe, Australia
Tropical Rainforest
200-400 cm, high rainfall, poor soil
Tall trees, vines
S. America, W. Africa, Southeast Asia
Taiga (Coniferous Forest)
20-60 cm rainfall, acidic soil
Coniferous trees
Northern parts of N. America and Eurasia
Producers of Energy flow
Convert sun energy or chemical energy into carbohydrates, photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
Primary succession
lichens grow in lifeless area
Secondary succession
grasses, existing community has been cleared with soil leftover
Pioneer species
species in first stages of primary or secondary succession
Climax community
final stage of succession
Carrying Capacity
(K) is max population size that can be supported with resources available in particular region
Desertification
conversion of productive land to desert
Causes of desertification
overgrazing, deforestation, adverse soil erosion, poor drainage of irrigated land, overuse of water supplies
Salinization
repeated irrigation forces soil salts to the top
Deforestation
removing trees for agri. or selling as lumber
Old growth forest
never cut, growing for hundreds of years
Agroforestry
trees and crops planted together
Overgrazing
animals eat grass faster than it grows
Renewable resource
regenerated fast
Nonrenewable resource
not regenerated during human existence
Gangue
waste material
Capture fisheries
catch fish in wild
By-catch
untargeted fish caught
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