Final ES3

Adam Smith

(1723-1790)

Economist : CAPITALISM

*free market (laissez-faire)

*thougt the free market would efficiently allocate resources, gov’t should have little control

*resources are limitless

*wrote “wealth of nations”

*ALLOCATION (efficiency)

agrees with 3, 5, 6

Thomas Malthus

(1766-1834)

*pioneer of population studies, saw it in a negative way (overpopulation will strip the food supply-famine, disease, war)

*there aren’t enough resources, the dismal truth

*first to address scale!

*(green revolution, advanced technology have delayed malthus predictions)

David Ricardo

(1772-1823)

Economist

*everyone benefits from the free trade!

*who gets what? who is entitled to what?

*escalator analogy-workers are the power. capitalists fight on way up. landlords get free trade

*rent stays consistent (landlords benefit)

*wager and profits always changing as a result of the economy.

*believes in low resource prices (only hurts landlords)

Karl Marx

(1818-1883)

Economist

*the communist manifesto

*workers are the most valuable, because they do everything & they should be the only to add value to the production process.

*dialectical materialism: one of the first comprehensive theories to place the environment and economy at the base of civilization– push towards classless society

Herbert Spencer

(1820-1903)

*extender of smith: wanted free economy/market

*social darwinism, survival of fittest

*rich are rich because they deserve it

*believed humans couldnt do anything to deplete the resources

*if it didnt benefit humans, doesnt have point of existence

 

Gifford Pinchot

(1865-1946)

*loved the outdoors &believed that we could deplete

*one of the first to impliment the reneway of forests

*control forest usage and help, stopped clear cutting

*creating sustainable forests, would cut them down, but replant.

*conservationist, use it as long as its sustainable

John Muir

(1838-1914)

*nature has rights and benefits, first real proponent to say that humans were destroying nature and the world around us

*fought for rights of environment & think of terms of surrounding

*started sierra club

*preservationist

 

Julian Simon

(1932-1998)

*only thinks in terms of economics

*people are the only thing important

*nature is only there to provide for humans

*environmentalism is based on bad science- if animals die, survival of fittest

 

*Economist

Garret Hardin

(1915-2003)

*tragedy of the commons

*we must limit freedom

*limit immigration, birth control, dont let poor countries make babies

*commited suicide

*only one child to replace you

 

Paul Ehrlich

(1932- NOW)

*believes that the population growth is a ticking bomb

*new malthusian

*believes population is going to crash

*concerned with carrying capacity

*ZPG

*finite resources

 

George Perkins Marsh

(1801-1882)

*wrote man and nature

*conservationist

*resource depletion

*wants to use resources effectively, thought globally

 

Utilitarian conservation
resources should be used to benefit the greatest good, for greatest #, for the longest time (nature is for human use)
Roderick Nash

*preservationist

*nature is beautiful and not subject to us

*introduced romaticism

 

William Graham Sumner

 

*classical liberalism

*laiseefair, govt interference only messed up order

*like smithy & spence pants

*saw earth as limitless and adjustable & has capacity for whatever comes up

*humans cant damage plant

Rachel Carson

wrote silent spring

*inspirational book that inspired environmental movement

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