final exam
native species
normally live in the community
non-native species
migrate deliberately into a community
indicator species
serves as a warning of damage to community
keystone species
critical ecological roles
foundation species
communities in ways that benefit each other
name the 5 types of species
– native
– non-native
– keystone
– indicator
– foundation
name the 5 types of species interactions
– mutualism
– predation
– commensalism
– parasitism
– competition
mutualism
both benefit
predation
one capture the other to feed off of it
commensalism
one benefits, other is unaffected
parasitism
one lives/feeds off the other, other is hurt
competition
two or more species try to use the same resource
how can species avoid competition?
develop adaptations
how can species avoid predation?
protective shells/thorns, camouflage, foul smell, mimicry, warning coloration or poison
list adaptations that help predators capture prey
speed, ability to swim, vision, ability to fly, and hunts in packs
ecological succession
gradual change in specie’s composition of a given area
list the two types of ecological succession
primary & secondary
primary succession
bare rock, cooled lava, abandoned parking lot
secondary succession
abandoned farm, burned/cut forests, land that’s been flooded
biotic potential
max rate at which the population can increase
what determines biotic potential?
light, water, nutrients
what causes an increase in biotic potential?
more resources
exponential growth
growth in which a population size increases at a constant rate per unit of time
logistic
growth in which exponential population growth occurs when its small and the population growth decreases steadily
what happens when an organism exceeds the carrying capacity?
move, switches eating habits, or declines in size
fertility
number of births that occur to a woman or a population
list the 2 types of fertility
replacement level & total fertility rate
population change
increase or decrease in a population
how do you calculate population change in a particular year?
(births + immigration) X (deaths + emigration)
what factors affect birth rate and fertility?
education, marriage age, abortions, and employment of the woman
crude death rate
annual number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population
factors that affect death rate
food, medicine, and water
a high infant mortality rate is often associated with
abortion, malnutrition, or illness
two useful indicators of overall health in a country or region are
life expectancy and infant mortality rate
the number of children a woman has is affected by
fertility
the age structure of a population is
percentage of the population at each age level
age structure diagrams are useful in identifying
how fast populations grow or decline
population age structure diagrams can be divided into the following categories
– expanding rapidly
– expanding slowly
– stable
– declining
basic family-planning policies in most countries include…
educational and clinical services that help couples
what factor has been a major factor in reducing births and abortions throughout most of the world?
family-planning
women tend to have fewer and healthier children when they…
are educated, have rights, and hold a paying job outside the house
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