Fire Prevention
type A extinguishers
used for ordinary combustibles (paper, cardboard, carbon materials)
type A extinguishers
contains: water, foam, halons, dry chem, wet chem
type B extinguishers
used for flammable and combustible liquids and plastics that melt in fire
type B extinguishers
contains: foam, CO2, halons, dry chem, wet chem
type C extinguishers
used for energized electrical equipment
type C extinguishers
contains: CO2, halons, dry chem, wet chem
type D extinguishers
used for combustible metals
type D extinguishers
contains: dry powder
type K extinguishers
used for combustible cooking media (vegetable or animal oils/fats)
type K extinguishers
contains: wet chem
B and C fires
What types of fires can CO2 be used on?
2.5 gallons and 5 gallons respectively
What does an extinguisher rating of 2A mean? What about 4A?
it will extinguish 10 sq. ft. of a liquid pan fire
What does an extinguisher rating of 10B mean?
it can put out fires involving electrical conductivity
Extinguishers with a C rating are not based on fire tests, but if an extinguisher has a C rating, what can it do?
No, each extinguisher is based on a specific metal
Can a class D extinguisher be used on any combustible metal fire?
It holds 5 gallons of water, can extinguish 10 sq. ft. of pan fire, and extinguish electrical fires.
What does a rating of 4A:10B:C mean?
halons and carbon tetrachloride (carbon tet)
What are the two banned extinguishing agents?
It must be sent to a proper system manufacturer, fire equipment distributor, or halon recycler
Where must a company send halon holding equipment or halon that they are getting rid of?
TRUE. Halons are allowed to be used for fire suppression
True or false: halon cannot be released into the atmosphere, but it can be used for fire suppression
clean agents
do not leave a residue and barely need any clean-up (CO2 is an example)
dirty/messy agents
typically leave a residue of some sort after extinguishing of fire and may require extensive clean-up (e.g., dry chems)
1. should be separated in a less hazardous area to avoid fire ignition

2. exits must be readily available

3. should have ventilation that allows for ample air flow directly outside and should be able to be cleaned easily

4. sprinklers should be put in place and no smoking signs posted

4 facts about spray painting booths
Offices, churches, classrooms
Examples of light/low hazard evaluation of sites (total amount of A/B combustibles is minor)
Dining areas and light manufacturing businesses
Examples of ordinary/moderate hazard evaluation of sites
Woodworking shops
Example of High/Extra hazard evaluation of sites
wet system
in this type of system, the gauges should be close to the same on the air/ceiling and water/floor sides
dry system
in this type of system, the gauge on the air/ceiling side should be LOWER than the gauge on the water/floor side
temporal code three
Groner – regardless of the notification device used to create the sound, building occupants should be able to hear a pattern of three sounds followed by a longer interval of silence. What is this called?
information value
Groner defined this as “the degree to which an alarm signal is useful in reducing uncertainty (how useful an alarm signal is in helping people achieve good situation awareness)”
Carey (1806)
History of Sprinkler Systems (1806)

Whose system had pipes running through a house with valves held shut by counterweights attached to string?… When the string burnt, the weights would fall and release water?

Harrison (1864)
History of Sprinkler Systems (1864)

He invented the first automatic sprinkler system

Parmelee (1875)
History of Sprinkler Systems (1875)

He invented the first modern sprinkler system which sprayed water only where it was needed.

Grinnell (1882)
History of Sprinkler Systems (1882)

Invented another sprinkler system that could withstand higher pressures and spread water more evenly

Freeman (1885)
History of Sprinkler Systems (1885)

He performed extensive tests on sprinkler systems

NFPA (1896)
History of Sprinkler Systems (1896)

This organization forms and publishes codes for automatic sprinkler systems

OSY valve
abbreviation for an open stem and yoke aka outer screw and yoke
FALSE…if you can’t see the screw, the OSY valve is closed
True or False: If you can’t see the screw on an OSY valve it is open
wet pipe system
type of sprinkler system in which the water is in the pipes and ready to go
dry pipe system
type of sprinkler system in which water is held back with air on the top. These systems sometimes have problems with freezing
preaction system
a dry pipe system at start, but upon sensing a fire, the valve is electronically opened to make a wet pipe system and INDIVIDUAL sprinkler heads release to permit water flow
deluge system
type of sprinkler system in which upon sensing a fire, the valve is electronically opened to make a wet pipe system and ALL sprinkler heads release to permit water flow. Typically needed for high hazard areas.
FALSE…most home sprinkler systems only cost about $1 – $1.50 per square foot in new construction
True or False: Home sprinkler systems are expensive to install
Siamese connections
typically located outside of a ground floor of a building. It is used to feed water by the fire department to the building’s sprinkler system. The fire department pumps are attached to deliver water from fire hydrants
ionization detectors
these detectors respond more quickly to flaming fires with smaller combustion particles
photoelectric detectors
these detectors respond more quickly to smoldering fires
flame detectors
these detectors must be able to “see the fire.” They can “see” alcohol fires and have very fast detections, but are very expensive and labor intensive to maintain. They also may respond to sunlight
gas detectors
these detectors respond to the by-products of fire. They are highly sensitive and most detect carbon monoxide
local application sprinkler system
this type of sprinkler system releases water in only the area where the fire is located
total flooding systems
this type of sprinkler system covers an ENTIRE area with fire suppressant
CO2 systems
these systems are used around equipment that has hazardous liquids, but would be damaged by dry chemicals. They should NOT be put in places that cannot be evacuated quickly and have a pre-discharge alarms to provide enough time for evacuation
FALSE…all control panels must be connected to a primary power source (main power) and a secondary source (battery power)
True or False: Control panels only need to be connected to one power source
conventional “point wired” systems
this type of control panel system has detectors grouped in zones and will warn people of a fire being in a specific “zone.” All detectors must be maintained regularly.
addressable “intelligent” systems
this type of control panel system has individual detectors and if one goes off, the system attempts to re-set it to avoid false alarms. This panel can detect decreased detector capability and give maintenance alerts.
FALSE…water will make combustible metals explode. USE DRY POWDERS
TRUE or FALSE: Water can be used on combustible metal fires
hydrostatic testing
must be done to protect against unexpected failure of a cylinder in extinguishers. It is performed by trained personnel every 5 years on water, foam, and CO2 extinguishers and every 12 years on dry chem/halon extinguishers
75 ft
Maximum distance between Class A fire extinguishers
50 ft
Maximum distance between Class B fire extinguishers
75 ft
Maximum distance between Class D fire extinguishers
30 ft
Maximum distance between Class K fire extinguishers
TRUE
True or False: Class C extinguishers need to be everywhere that contains electrical equipment
FALSE…he believes that surprise fire drills reduce occupants’ perception that alarm signals indicate real emergencies. Fire safety codes have been changed to allow greater use of announced drills because they are just as effective.
True or False – Groner thinks that surprise fire drills are the best option for preparedness
local (protected premises) alarm system
this alarm system sounds an alarm and this alarm notifies residents and the local fire brigade
Emergency alarm/alarm communication system
this alarm system provides a message which instructs residents and the local fire brigade (typically used in high rises where people may have to re-locate rather than evacuate)
Proprietary alarm system
this alarm system is constantly supervised by a company’s personnel and the supervising station is located on property
Central alarm system
this alarm system is constantly supervised by a specialized and certified company and the supervising station is located at the premises of the third party company
remote station alarm system
this alarm system is used when premises are often unoccupied. The system is controlled by the company at headquarters or communications agency.
auxiliary alarm system
this alarm system sends fire detection signals to the public fire service communication center
post indicator valve
the unseen gate valve used to control the water supply to sprinkler, deluge, water spray, foam, and standpipe systems used for fire protection in large buildings and factories. It controls water flow into the private system from the public water system
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