Fish (FRST 386)
 

What is the latin name for whitefish? (subfamily)

 

 

Coregoninae

 

 

What is the latin name for grayling? (subfamily)

 

 

Thymallinae

 

 

 

What is the latin name for salmon, trout, char? (subfamily)
Salmoninae
What is the latin name for Pacific Salmon and trout? (genus)
Oncorhynchus
What is the latin name for ‘pink salmon’?
Onchorhynchus gorbuscha
What is the latin name for ‘coho salmon’?
Oncorhynchus kisutch
What is the latin name for ‘chum salmon’?
Oncorhynchus keta
What is the latin name for ‘sockeye salmon’?
Oncorhynchus nerka
What is the latin name for ‘chinook salmon’?
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
What is the latin name for ‘rainbow trout’?
Oncorhynchus mykiss
What is the latin name for ‘cutthroat trout’?
Oncorhynchus clarki
 

What is the latin name for Atlantic salmon and trout? (genus)

 

 

Salmo

 

What is the latin name for ‘Atlantic salmon’?
Salvelinus salar
What is the latin name for ‘brown trout’?
Salvelinus trutta
What is the latin name for char? (genus)
Salvelinus
What is the latin name for ‘lake trout’?
Salvelinus namaycush
What is the latin name for ‘brook trout’?
Salvelinus fontinalis
What is the latin name for ‘dolly varden’?
 

Salvelinus malma

 

What is the latin name for ‘bull trout’?
Salvelinus confluentus
Define ‘population’
Group of organisms of same species that interbreed and live in the same place and time
Define ‘stock’
 

  • Group of fish, in a species, genetically self-sustaining and isolated during reproduction

  •  

    Generally used when

    referring to Pacific salmon populations

     

 

 

Define ‘anadromous’, ‘catadromous’, ‘non-anadromous’?

 

 

  • anadromous = fish species that does most of growing at sea and returns to freshwater to spawn (Pacific and Atlantic salmon)

  • catadromous = fish species that does most of growing in freshwater and spawns at sea

  • non-anadromous = fish life that spends most of its life in freshwater

 

What is the difference between ‘semelparous’ and ‘iteroparous’?
 

  • semelparous = species that spawns only once (all Pacific salmon)

  • iteroparous = species that matures and spawns more than once

 

Name 3 fish ageing techniques
 

  1. Direct observation of individually identifiable animals whose histories can be followed through time

  2. Estimation based on size frequency distribution

  3. Estimation based on analysis of hard body parts (scales, otoliths, fin rays) whose structure retains growth information relatable to time

 

What are the pros and cons of the ageing technique of following known marked individuals?
 

PROS

  • accurate info about age

  • large sampling size

  • collect other info

  • follow migration

  • easy on fish

CONS

  • hard to find

  • tag a lot ($$)

  • time consuming

  • cause mortality

  • mortality affects data

 

What are the pros and cons of the ageing technique of size-frequency distributions?
 

PROS

  • fairly easy once graphed

  • better for small scale long-term studies

  • use statistics to mitigate error

  • non-destructive

  • no experts required

CONS

  • overlap in age class

  • false readings, inaccuracies

  • not best for all studies

 

What are the pros and cons of the ageing technique of analyzing hard body parts?
 

PROS

  • can be non-destructive

  • collection fairly easy

  • dont need as many samples

  • don’t need to know life history

CONS

  • can be destructive (otoliths), cut open fish

  • expertise required

  • time consuming

  • expensive

;

[image]
Fleshy dorsal fin
[image]
Spiny-fleshy dorsal fin
[image]
Spiny dorsal fin
[image]
Terminal mouth position
[image]
Supra-terminal mouth position
[image]
Sub-terminal mouth position
[image]
Inferior mouth position
[image]
Torpedo body shape
[image]
Dorsally compressed body shape
[image]
;

Laterally compressed body shape

;

Which riparian classes are fish bearing and which are not fish bearing?
;

S1, S2, S3, S4 are fish bearing

;

S5, S6 are NOT fish bearing

;

Which riparian class indicates a larger channel width: S1 or S3?
S1 is larger than S3
[image]
pelvic fin
[image]
opercle
[image]
maxilla
[image]
dorsal fin
[image]
caudal peduncle
[image]
caudal fin
[image]
anal fin
[image]
Lateral line
What is the difference between cleared and complex stream sections?
;

  • riparian looks similar, but

  • differences in sinuosity, width, length, volume, number of pools/riffles, depth, bank erosion, old rootwad/LWD cover, undercut banks, FSZs

;

[image]
;

a) total length

b) fork length

c) standard length

d) post orbital length

e) head length

f) snout length

;

[image]
;

Salvelinus confluentus (Bull trout)

  • non-anadromous

  • dark body, light spots

  • white edges on fins

  • no pattern on dorsal fin

;

[image]
;

Salvelinus malma (Dolly varden)

  • anadromous

  • dark body, light spots

  • white edges on fins

  • red/pink spots on side

  • no pattern on dorsal fin

;

[image]
;

Salvelinus fortinalis (Brook trout)

  • red dots surrounded by blue halos

  • brown body with yellow spots
  • white edges on fins

  • pattern on dorsal fin

;

[image]
;

Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook trout)

  • red dots surrounded by blue halos

  • brown body with yellow spots

  • white edges to fins

  • pattern on dorsal fin

;

[image]
;

Salvelinus namaycush (Lake trout)

  • brown, dark grey colour with creamy spots

  • white leading edges

  • least colourful

;

[image]
;

Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)

  • irregular shaped spots (x-shaped)

  • 2-3 large spots on operculum

;

[image]
;

Salmo trutta (Brown trout)

;;;;;;;;; Light body, dark spots

;;;;;;;;; Red spots with light-coloured halos

;;;;;;;;; Blunt caudal fin (square-ish shape)

;

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus clarki (cutthroat salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Red slash colouring

;;;;;;;;; Long maxilla

;;;;;;;;; Green back, pink side

;;;;;;;;; Teeth on tongue (hyoid teeth)

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus clarki (cutthroat salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Red slash colouring

;;;;;;;;; Long maxilla

;;;;;;;;; Green back, pink side

;;;;;;;;; Teeth on tongue (hyoid teeth)

;

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)

;;;;;;;;; Shorter maxilla

;;;;;;;;; Green back, pink side

;;;;;;;;; No teeth

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)

;;;;;;;;; Shorter maxilla

;;;;;;;;; Green back, pink side

;;;;;;;;; No teeth

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus clarki (cutthroat salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Red slash colouring

;;;;;;;;; Long maxilla

;;;;;;;;; Green back, pink side

;;;;;;;;; Teeth on tongue (hyoid teeth)

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Chinook salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Very large, largest salmon in Oncorhynchus

;;;;;;;;; Mottled brown/grey/sometimes red colour

;;;;;;;;; Black gums

;;;;;;;;; Hook jaw

;;;;;;;;; Slight hump

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Chinook salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Very large, largest salmon in Oncorhynchus

;;;;;;;;; Mottled brown/grey/sometimes red colour

;;;;;;;;; Black gums

;;;;;;;;; Hook jaw

;;;;;;;;; Slight hump

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus nerka (sockeye salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Bright red, slight white colouration on belly, green head

;;;;;;;;; Large hump

;;;;;;;;; Females = less bright, less hump

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus keta (chum salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Juveniles = Faint parr marks above lateral line

;;;;;;;;; Splotchy purple banding along lateral line

;;;;;;;;; dark green back and white belly

;;;;;;;;; Large teeth

;;;;;;;;; Large hook jaw

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Juvenile = Parr marks narrower than interspaces

;;;;;;;;; Olive green back, red belly

;;;;;;;;; Extended jaw; not as pronounced in females

;;;;;;;;; No hump

;;;;;;;;; White gums

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Juvenile = Parr marks narrower than interspaces

;;;;;;;;; Olive green back, red belly

;;;;;;;;; Extended jaw; not as pronounced in females

;;;;;;;;; No hump

;;;;;;;;; White gums

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus gorbushcha (pink salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Juveniles = Have no parr marks

;;;;;;;;; Large hooked upper jaw

;;;;;;;;; olive/grey and white

;;;;;;;;; Pink colour streaking along lateral line

;;;;;;;;; Large dorsal hump (males)

;

[image]
;

Thymallinae (Grayling)

  • sail-like dorsal fin

;

[image]
;

Coregoninae (whitefish)

;;;;;;;;; Silver

;;;;;;;;; Deeply forked tail

;;;;;;;;; Slightly sub-terminal mouth

;;;;;;;;; Large scales

;;;;;;;;; Torpedo shape

;

[image]
;

Cyprinidae (Minnows)

;;;;;;;;; Anal fin almost in line with back of dorsal fin

;;;;;;;;; Anal fin far from caudal fin

;;;;;;;;; Deeper bodied

;;;;;;;;; Order; = Cypriniformes

;

[image]
;

Cyprinidae (Minnows)

;;;;;;;;; Anal fin almost in line with back of dorsal fin

;;;;;;;;; Anal fin far from caudal fin

;;;;;;;;; Deeper bodied

;;;;;;;;; Order; = Cypriniformes

;

[image]
;

Cyprinidae (Minnows)

;;;;;;;;; Anal fin almost in line with back of dorsal fin

;;;;;;;;; Anal fin far from caudal fin

;;;;;;;;; Deeper bodied

;;;;;;;;; Order; = Cypriniformes

;

[image]
;

Catostomidae (suckers)

;;;;;;;;; Protruding lips

;;;;;;;;; Abdominal pelvic fins

;;;;;;;;; Anal fin close to caudal fin

;;;;;;;;; Torpedo shaped

;;;;;;;;; Order = Cypriniformes

;

[image]
;

Percidae (perch)

;;;;;;;;; Gap between spiny and fleshy sections of dorsal

;;;;;;;;; Order = Perciformes

;

[image]
;

Percidae (perch)

;;;;;;;;; Gap between spiny and fleshy sections of dorsal

;;;;;;;;; Order = Perciformes

;

[image]
;

Centrarchidae (bass, sunfish)

;;;;;;;;; Laterally compressed

;;;;;;;;; Spines in fins

;;;;;;;;; Pelvic fin close to head

;;;;;;;;; Spiny-fleshy dorsal fin (no break between two sections)

;;;;;;;;; Order = Perciformes

;

[image]
;

Gasteroteidae (sticklebacks)

;;;;;;;;; Isolated spines

;;;;;;;;; Thin caudal peduncal

;

[image]
;

Esocidae (pike)

;;;;;;;;; Duck bill shaped mouth

;;;;;;;;; Dorsal fin far back

;

[image]
;

Gadidae (cod)

;;;;;;;;; Long, slender

;;;;;;;;; Barbel on chin (like a beard)

;

[image]
;

Ictaluridae (catfish)

;;;;;;;;; Whisker-like projections (barbells)

;;;;;;;;; Skin, no scales

;;;;;;;;; Adipose fin

;

[image]
;

Osmeridae (Smelts)

;;;;;;;;; Adipose fin

;;;;;;;;; Long and narrow

;;;;;;;;; Silver

;;;;;;;;; Supra-terminal mouth

;;;;;;;;; Don;t confuse with whitefish

;;;;;;;;; Order = Salmoniformes

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)

;;;;;;;;; Shorter maxilla

;;;;;;;;; Green back, pink side

;;;;;;;;; No teeth

;

[image]
;

Gasteroteidae (sticklebacks)

;;;;;;;;; Isolated spines

;;;;;;;;; Thin caudal peduncal

;

[image]
;

Clupeidae (herring)

;;;;;;;;; No lateral line, no scales

;;;;;;;;; Laterally compressed

;;;;;;;;; Serrated edge on bottom of fish

;

[image]
;

Petromyzontidae (lampreys)

;;;;;;;;; No fins, no scales

;;;;;;;;; Suction-like mouth

;;;;;;;;; Anadromous

;

[image]
;

Percidae (perch)

;;;;;;;;; Gap between spiny and fleshy sections of dorsal

;;;;;;;;; Order = Perciformes

;

[image]
;

Esocidae (pike)

;;;;;;;;; Duck bill shaped mouth

;;;;;;;;; Dorsal fin far back

;

[image]
;

Centrarchidae (bass, sunfish)

;;;;;;;;; Laterally compressed

;;;;;;;;; Spines in fins

;;;;;;;;; Pelvic fin close to head

;;;;;;;;; Spiny-fleshy dorsal fin (no break between two sections)

;;;;;;;;; Order = Perciformes

;

[image]
;

Gasteroteidae (sticklebacks)

;;;;;;;;; Isolated spines

;;;;;;;;; Thin caudal peduncal

;

;

[image]
;

Cottidae (sculpins)

;;;;;;;;; Large wide pectoral fins

;;;;;;;;; Pelvic fins reduced, tucked under pectoral fins

;;;;;;;;; Order = Scorpaeniformes

;

[image]
;

Cottidae (sculpins)

;;;;;;;;; Large wide pectoral fins

;;;;;;;;; Pelvic fins reduced, tucked under pectoral fins

;;;;;;;;; Order = Scorpaeniformes

;

[image]
;

Gadidae (cod)

;;;;;;;;; Long, slender

;;;;;;;;; Barbel on chin (like a beard)

;

[image]
;

Osmeridae (Smelts)

;;;;;;;;; Adipose fin

;;;;;;;;; Long and narrow

;;;;;;;;; Silver

;;;;;;;;; Supra-terminal mouth

;;;;;;;;; Don;t confuse with whitefish

;;;;;;;;; Order = Salmoniformes

;

[image]
;

Ictaluridae (catfish)

;;;;;;;;; Whisker-like projections (barbells)

;;;;;;;;; Skin, no scales

;;;;;;;;; Adipose fin

;

[image]
;

Catostomidae (suckers)

;;;;;;;;; Protruding lips

;;;;;;;;; Abdominal pelvic fins

;;;;;;;;; Anal fin close to caudal fin

;;;;;;;;; Torpedo shaped

;;;;;;;;; Order = Cypriniformes

;

[image]
;

Catostomidae (suckers)

;;;;;;;;; Protruding lips

;;;;;;;;; Abdominal pelvic fins

;;;;;;;;; Anal fin close to caudal fin

;;;;;;;;; Torpedo shaped

;;;;;;;;; Order = Cypriniformes

;

[image]
;

Cyprinidae (Minnows)

;;;;;;;;; Anal fin almost in line with back of dorsal fin

;;;;;;;;; Anal fin far from caudal fin

;;;;;;;;; Deeper bodied

;;;;;;;;; Order; = Cypriniformes

;

[image]
;

Clupeidae (herring)

;;;;;;;;; No lateral line, no scales

;;;;;;;;; Laterally compressed

;;;;;;;;; Serrated edge on bottom of fish

;

[image]
;

Clupeidae (herring)

;;;;;;;;; No lateral line, no scales

;;;;;;;;; Laterally compressed

;;;;;;;;; Serrated edge on bottom of fish

;

[image]
;

Acipenseridae (sturgeon)

;;;;;;;;; Four bony rows (scuttes) down side of body

;;;;;;;;; Inferior mouth

;

[image]
;

Petromyzontidae (lampreys)

;;;;;;;;; No fins, no scales

;;;;;;;;; Suction-like mouth

;;;;;;;;; Anadromous

;

[image]
;

Salvelinus confluentus (bull trout)

;;;;;;;;; Non-anadromous

;;;;;;;;; Dark body, light spots

;;;;;;;;; White edges on fins

;;;;;;;;; Red/pink markings on side

;;;;;;;;; No patterns on dorsal fin

;

[image]
;

Salvelinus malma (Dolly Varden Char)

;;;;;;;;; Anadromous

;;;;;;;;; Dark body, light spots

;;;;;;;;; White edges on fins

;;;;;;;;; Red/pink markings on side

;;;;;;;;; No patterns on dorsal fin

;

[image]
;

Salvelinus malma (Dolly Varden Char)

;;;;;;;;; Anadromous

;;;;;;;;; Dark body, light spots

;;;;;;;;; White edges on fins

;;;;;;;;; Red/pink markings on side

;;;;;;;;; No patterns on dorsal fin

;

[image]
;

Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook trout)

;;;;;;;;; Red dots surrounded by blue halos

;;;;;;;;; White edges to fins

;;;;;;;;; Brown body with yellow spots

;;;;;;;;; Pattern on dorsal fin

;

[image]
;

Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook trout)

;;;;;;;;; Red dots surrounded by blue halos

;;;;;;;;; White edges to fins

;;;;;;;;; Brown body with yellow spots

;;;;;;;;; Pattern on dorsal fin

;

[image]
;

Salvelinus namaycush (lake trout)

;;;;;;;;; Brown, dark grey coloured body, light-coloured spots (plain-looking)

;;;;;;;;; Irregular shaped spots

;

[image]
;

Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Light body, dark spots

;;;;;;;;; Irregular shaped spots (like X;s)

;;;;;;;;; 2-3 large spots near head

[image]
;

Salmo trutta (Brown trout)

;;;;;;;;; Light body, dark spots

;;;;;;;;; Red spots with light-coloured halos

;;;;;;;;; Blunt caudal fin (square-ish shape)

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus clarki (cutthroat salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Red slash colouring

;;;;;;;;; Long maxilla

;;;;;;;;; Green back, pink side

;;;;;;;;; Teeth on tongue (hyoid teeth)

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus clarki (cutthroat salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Red slash colouring

;;;;;;;;; Long maxilla

;;;;;;;;; Green back, pink side

;;;;;;;;; Teeth on tongue (hyoid teeth)

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus clarki (cutthroat salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Red slash colouring

;;;;;;;;; Long maxilla

;;;;;;;;; Green back, pink side

;;;;;;;;; Teeth on tongue (hyoid teeth)

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)

;;;;;;;;; Shorter maxilla

;;;;;;;;; Green back, pink side

;;;;;;;;; No teeth

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)

  • juvenile = parr marks bisect lateral lineno spots in tail, 8-12 rays in anal fin

  • Shorter maxilla

  • Green back, pink side

  • No teeth

;

;

[image]
[image]
;

Oncorhynchus nerka (sockeye salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Bright red, slight white colouration on belly, green head

;;;;;;;;; Large hump

;;;;;;;;; Females = less bright, less hump

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus keta (chum salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Juveniles = Faint parr marks above lateral line

;;;;;;;;; Splotchy purple banding along lateral line

;;;;;;;;; dark green back and white belly

;;;;;;;;; Large teeth

;;;;;;;;; Large hook jaw

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Juvenile = Parr marks narrower than interspaces

;;;;;;;;; Olive green back, red belly

;;;;;;;;; Extended jaw; not as pronounced in females

;;;;;;;;; No hump

;;;;;;;;; White gums

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus gorbushcha (pink salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Juveniles = Have no parr marks

;;;;;;;;; Large hooked upper jaw

;;;;;;;;; olive/grey and white

;;;;;;;;; Pink colour streaking along lateral line

;;;;;;;;; Large dorsal hump (males)

;

[image]
;

Oncorhynchus gorbushcha (pink salmon)

;;;;;;;;; Juveniles = Have no parr marks

;;;;;;;;; Large hooked upper jaw

;;;;;;;;; olive/grey and white

;;;;;;;;; Pink colour streaking along lateral line

;;;;;;;;; Large dorsal hump (males)

;

[image]
;

Thymallinae (grayling)

;;;;;;;;; Sail-like dorsal fin

;

[image]
;

Coregoninae (whitefish)

;;;;;;;;; Silver

;;;;;;;;; Deeply forked tail

;;;;;;;;; Slightly sub-terminal mouth

;;;;;;;;; Large scales

;;;;;;;;; Torpedo shape

;

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