How much of the world’s fresh water is frozen solid in the polar icecaps?
more than half
What is surface water?
fresh water that is aboveground in lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams
Surface water is depended on to supply _______________ with their water supplies.
most large cities
Why is it better to depend on a lake instead of a river for a water supply?
rivers only have the water that is in them from that year’s precipitation which varies from year to year. A lake contains a reservoir of water from multiple years.
What % of the world’s population relies on water that originates in another country?
What are the three positive uses of a dam?
Water supply that has a reserve that is usable, flood control, and electricity.
What is the recharge zone?
The recharge zone is the land from which the groundwater originates.
What is the problem with the aquifers?
The problem with aquifers is that people are pumping out water faster than it can be replaced naturally.
What are the two main methods of desalinization?
The two main methods of desalinization are distillation and reverse osmosis.
Describe the process of distillation.
In distillation, heat is used to evaporate fresh water from salt water, leaving the salts behind. In revere osmosis, pressure is used to push the water through a semipermeable membrane that will not permit the salts to pass.
Why don’t we use desalinization more to supply us with fresh water?
It is too expensive.
In very poor countries, what is usually the cause of water pollution?
In very poor countries, it is not industry, but the fact that the population has outgrown the water supply.
What are the seven kinds of water pollutants?
The seven kinds of water pollutants are: pathogens, organic matter, organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, toxic chemicals, physical agents, and radioactive waste.
The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) determined that 96% of the polluted bodies of water in the United States were contaminated by what?
96% of the polluted bodies of water in the United States are contaminated by nonpoint sources.
What is nonpoint pollution? is pollution that comes from
Nonpoint pollution is pollution that comes from many sources rather than from a single specific site.
What are the by products of a water treatment plant?
The by product of a water treatment plant is sludge and treated water.
The three diseases mentioned in our book that people can catch by drinking water that is polluted with pathogens are?
The three diseases mentioned in our book that people can catch by drinking water that is polluted with pathogens are cholera, hepatitis, and typhoid.
Why has the era of building dams come to an end in the United States?
most of the best locations already have dams
Why is sludge hard to dispose of?
Sludge contains dangerous concentrations of toxic chemicals, and the amount needed to be disposed of is enormous.
A water treatment plant could also be called a sewage plant?
How do pathogens enter the water supplies?
in untreated waste water or animal feces
What is the most common method of testing to see if pathogens are in the water?
Check for Escherichia coli, a common type of human intestinal bacteria.
What specifically happens to fish in oxygen depleted water?
they suffocate – they die will not be accepted.
What part of ocean pollution comes from activities on land even oil pollution?
85% of ocean pollution
Oil pollution comes from what three major sources?
small oil tankers that have accidents or leaks, spillage when tankers are loaded or unloaded, and offshore oil rigs leaking petroleum. These “small” accidents accumulate and have a large impact.
Which aquifer supplies water to the city of San Antonio and surrounding towns?
The Edwards Aquifer
What happens to fish when artificial eutrophication occurs in a lake?
They die from suffocation
Describe reverse osmosis
Pressure is used to push the water through a semipermeable membrane that will not permit the salts to pass.