IMIIP: Lab Midterm
African cotton leafworm
Spodoptera littoralis

Order Lepidoptera, family Noctuidae. A pest of tomatoes. May be controlled with Trichogramma or Bacillus thuringiensis pathogens.

Alfalfa leafcutter bee
Megachile rotundata

Order Hymenoptera, family Megachilidae.

Amblydromalus limonicus
Class Arachnida. A predatory mite that can be used as biological control for thrips and whiteflies.
Amblyseius swirskii
Class Arachnida, subclass Acari, family Phytoseiidae. A predatory mite that can be used as biological control for thrips, mites, and whiteflies. It is a more effective predator when it controls for thrips as well as whiteflies, because the diverse diet increases populations. It is a poor control for whiteflies when thrips are absent. It may prey on Aphidoletes aphidimyza and Neoseiulus cucumeris, other BCAs of thrips. May be preyed upon by fungi. Used in over 20 countries in Europe, Africa, North and South America, and Asia. First used in 2005. Large market value. One of the most used predatory mites used to control thrips. It is more effective during finishing stages, when temperature is higher, and pollen is available.
Anasa tristis
Order Hemiptera, family Coreidae.
Antibiosis
A mechanism of biopesticides. The microbe kills the pathogen.
Aphelinus abdominalis
Order Hymenoptera, family Aphelinidae. A parasitoid of aphids. Used in over 10 countries in Europe, North Africa, North America, and Asia. First used in 1992. Medium market value.
Aphidius
Order Hymenoptera, family Braconidae. A parasitoid of aphids. May be preyed upon by fungi.
Aphidius colemani
Order Hymenoptera, family Braconidae. A natural enemy of aphids. May be preyed upon by Aphidoletes aphidimyza and Orius majusculus. May be supported in greenhouses with banker plants of oat or wheat that are infested with Rhapalosiuphum padi which the wasp uses to reproduce. Used in over 20 countries in Europe, Africa, North and South America, Asia, and Australasia. First used in 1991. Large market value.
Aphidius ervi
Order Hymenoptera, family Braconidae. A biological control agent. Targets aphids. Used in over 15 countries in Europe, North Africa, North and South America, and Asia. First used in 1993. Large market value.
Aphidoletes aphidimyza
Order Diptera, family Cecidomyiidae. A predator of aphids. May be preyed upon by fungi, Amblyseius swirskii, Neosiulus cucumeris, and Orius majusculus. May prey upon Aphidius colemani. Used in over 20 countries in Europe, Africa, North America, and Asia. First used in 1989. Large market value.
Aphids
Order Hemiptera, superfamily Aphidoidea. A major pest in greenhouses. Populations can develop so quickly that introduction of natural enemies often occurs too late; it is best to bring natural enemies in before aphids are discovered. Many genera are represented in a greenhouse, each demanding a specific set of natural enemies. Few natural enemies have the potential to match reproductive and developmental rates. Natural enemies benefit from banker plants. May be controlled by parasitoids Aphidius and Aphelinus abdominalis, predators Aphidoletes aphidimyza, green and brown lacewings, Syrphid flies, lady beetles, and entomopathogenic fungi. Members of the same species can be many different colours. May be controlled with photoselective greenhouse covers, which reduce aphid populations but not aphid parasitoids.
Atheta
Order Coleoptera, family Staphylinidae. A biological control agent of thrips. May prey upon Stratiolaelaps scimutus. May be preyed upon by fungi.

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Augmentative biological control
Augmentation biologial control

Periodical release of mass-reared natural enemies to obtain immediate control of pests. Used where populations of natural enemies are not present or cannot respond quickly enough to the pest population. Includes inoculative and inundative control. Natural enemies are reared commercially in biofactories for release in large numbers. A successful, environmentally and economically sound alternative to chemical pest control. Has moved from a cottage industry to professional production. There are 230 commercially availabls BCAs. There are control guidelines for production, shipment, and release. Adoption is slow, and use is on a slow acreage; reasons include attitude of pesticide industry, farmers, government institutions, and biological control community, and influence of guidelines and regulations. Reasons for adoption inlude arthropod resistance to pesticides, residue demands of food retailers, attitude of customers, and changing attitudes of government institutions.

Banker plant
A potted plant that is placed in a greenhouse to establish early colonies of predators in a crop that does not yet have pollen. Provides a food source and/or alternative reproduction site for natural enemies. Ensures a presence of natural enemies in the crop. Benefits natural enemies of thrips and aphids. For thrips, Ricinus communis is used, and for aphids wheat plants infested with wheat aphids are used. Can be oat, wheat, castor bean, mullen, and ornamental pepper.
Beleaf
A chemical pesticide used against thrips. Poor control of western flower thrips. Registered within the last 2 – 3 years.
Bemisia
Order Hemiptera, family Aleyrodidae. Whiteflies. A common greenhouse pest.
Beneficial nematode
Heterorhabditis bateriophora

Phylum Nematoda, family Heterorhabditidae. A biological control agent. Targets coleopterans. Used in over 10 countries in Europe, North Afria, North America, and Australasia. First used in 1984. Large market value.

Biological control
Biocontrol

Use of an organism to reduce the population density of another organism below an economic threshold. The organism is a natural enemy of the pest, such as predators, parasitoids, and pathogens that target pests. Sometimes includes biologically derived products. Includes natural, classical, conservation, and augmentative biological control. Requires multiple BCAs, and there are trophic interactions and apparent competition between BCAs. Complex interactions, and the more complex the food web the more effective the control. Strategic selection of BCAs and innovative approaches enhance effectiveness. Involves integrative pest management. Plant species may influence success of BCAs; factors including flowering, trichomes, and plant architecture. Used for two millenia, widely used since the end of the nineteenth century. Today it is used on 10% of cultivated land. Used in greenhouses 100% for tomatoes and peppers, 90% for cucumber, and 69% for ornamentals.┬áCanada is a world leader. Uptake is slow. Growers often use biocontrol only if they are legally obligated to; they doubt its effectiveness, and don’t want to stop using pesticides. Increased regulation on the release of BCAs, and new laws against taking natural resources form other countries, including BCAs, has reduced use. Attitudes of consumers and grocery chains favours it; consumers are becoming more aware of food production. Resistance against biological control can occur in some cases, but is rare. A key approach for sustainable pest management.

Biological control advantages
Reduced chemical exposure to growers and applicators. Increased safety. No pesticide resistance. No pesticide residues. An alternative when no pesticides are available. Socially responsible. Low environmental risk. Technical support from suppliers. Sustainable. Productive. Cost-effective. Profitable. Doesn’t require certification. Increases plant health. Pressure from peers, competitors, or customers. Takes less time and is more pleasant than applying chemicals. Application occurs after planting, and is reliable for months. No safety period between application and harvest. May be permanent. The most environmentally safe and economically profitable form of pest management, especially in greenhouses.
Biological control agent (BCA)
Organisms used for biological control. Includes predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. Commercial production started in the early 1900s, and increased significantly after 1970. There are 170 species commercially available, with 25 species taking up over 90% of the market. Most are hymenopterans, followed by mites, coleopterans, heteropterans, nematodes, neuropterans, dipterans, thysanopterans, molluscs, and centipedes. Produced by 30 companies of over 5 employees, and 5 companies of over 50 employees. In greenhouses, may require supplemental food or banker plants for establishment or persistence. Often are reared very far away from where they are used, and are shipped. Often reared on another insect. A single BCA rarely provides satisfactory control. Susceptible to environmental conditions including temperature, photoperiod, and relative humidity. Relative humidity is important for mite eggs and fungi. May require supplemental food.
Biologial control disadvantages
Expensive. Can be ineffective. Lag time between applications and effect. Many growers don’t know about it. Incompatible with many pesticides. Difficult to implement. Can be a nuisance to the public. Can spread diseases. Transportation is expensive and must be well-timed. Product may be unavailable or low quality after shipping. Requires quality control. Requires multiple BCAs and strategies.
Biopesticide
Beneficial microbes and microbial extracts. Work by competition, antibiosis, or induced resistance.
BOLD-Identification Engine
www.boldsystems.org

Used to determine the species of a sample, based on barcode sequence. The library is built by taxonomists. Taxonomy and barcoding are linked, and take value from each other. DNA sequencing to determine to the barcode sequence costs around $2,000 for 100 specimens, and is often done in bulk, which slows down diagnostic services.

Bright-line brown-eye
Lacanobia oleracea

Order Lepidoptera, family Noctuidae. A pest of tomatoes. May be controlled with Trichogramma or Bacillus thuringiensis pathogen.

Broad mite
Polyphagotarsonemus latus

Class Arachnida. A common greenhouse pest.

Brown lacewing
Order Neuroptera, family Hemerobiidae. A predator of aphids.
Bulb mite
Rhizoglyphus echinopus

Class Arachnida. A common greenhouse pest.

Bumble bee
Bombus

Order Hymenoptera, family Apidae. Used as pollinators in greenhouses. May be sensitive to pesticides, which motivates use of biological control.

Calledia punctata
Order Coleoptera, family Carabidae.
Canada thistle gall fly
Urophora cardui

Order Diptera, family Tephritidae.

Caterpillars
Order Lepidoptera. Common greenhouse pests.
Chemical defence
A form of plant resistance. Includes constitutive and induced chemical defence. Secondary metabolites are found in trichomes, including terpenoids, phenylpropenes, flavonoids, methyl ketones, acyl sugars, and defensive proteins.
Chilli thrip
Scirtothrips dorsalis

Order Thysanoptera, family Thripidae. A common greenhouse pest.

Chilocorus circumdatus
Order Coleoptera, family Coccinellidae. One of the first BCAs used in augmentative biological control, used in 1902. Used in Europe and Australia. Small market value.
Chrysanthemums
Different varieties have different susceptibilities to thrips and leaf miners. Stages include preparation, propagation, production, and finishing; thrips may be controlled in all stages.
Classical biological control
Inoculative biological control. The introduction of specialist natural enemies imported from the homeland of a pest of foreign origin. The objective is to establish populations of these natural enemies to attack the pest and to reduce its numbers. There can be unforeseen side effects. Used against invasive pests.
Common asparagus beetle
Crioceris asparagi

Order Coleoptera, family Chrysomelidae.

Common red soldier beetle
Rhagonycha fulva

Order Coleoptera, family Cantharidae.

Competition
A mechanism of biopesticides. The microbes take up physical space, excluding the pathogen.
Coservation biological control
Modification of the environment or agronomic practices to protect and enhance the activities of natural enemies already present in the ecosystem. Depends on natural diversity. Natural enemies are attracted somehow, or given an advantage. Human actions that protect and stimulate the performance of naturally ocurring natural enemies.
Constitutive chemical defence
Chemical defence for plant resistance that is expressed constantly, even in the absence of the pest. Costly to the plant. Secondary metabolites are stored in specialized plant parts or as precursors. Found in plants with high risk of attack. Includes latex and nicotine.
Convergent lady beetle
Hippodamia convergens

Order Coleoptera, family Coccinellidae.

Dacnusa sibrica
Order Hymenoptera, family Braconidae. A biological control agent. Targets leaf miners. Used in over 20 countries in Europe, North Africa, North and South America, and Asia. First used in 1981. Large market value.
Defense traits
May be naturally occurring or artificially selected through crop breeding. Affects pests and higher trophic levels.
Delphastus catalinae
Order Coleoptera, family Coccinellidae. A biological control agent of whiteflies.
Dicyphus hesperus
Order Hemiptera, family Miridae. A biological control agent of whiteflies. May be supported in greenhouses with banker plants of mullen, which provides them with plant sap.
Diglyphus isaea
Order Hymenoptera, family Eulophidae. A parasitoid of leaf miners. Used in over 20 countries in Europe, Africa, North and South America, and Asia. First used in 1984. Large market value.
Dipping
A preventative control method used in during propagation. Cuttings are immersed in low-risk pesticide or biopesticide, such as horticultural oil (registered), insecticidal soap, or BotaniGuard. The cuttings are swished for a full 3 seconds. Has better coverage and uses less pesticide than sprays.
Direct defence
Resistance that affects herbivores without a mediating factor.
Dispersing thrips
Thrips on the move. Found in vents, doorways, and between plants. Trap plants are more effective.
Echinothrips
Order Thysanoptera, family Thripidae. A common greenhouse pest.
Empoasca fabae
Order Hemiptera, family Cicadellidae.
Encarsia formosa
Order Hymenoptera, family Aphelinidae. A parasitoid of whiteflies. May be preyed upon by fungi. Used in over 20 countries in Europe, Africa, North and South America, Asia, and Australia. First used in 1926. Large market value.
Enchenopa binotata
Order Hemiptera, family Membraidae.
Entomopathogenic fungi
A biological control agent for thrips, aphids, and whiteflies. It can prey upon insect biological control agents as well as pests.
Entomopathogenic nematodes
A biological control agent for thrips and other common greenhouse pests. Kills the pupae of thrips.
Environment
A factor that contributes to effective pest control. Affects pests as well as BCAs. Physical and cultural control: exclusion, quarantine, and screening; sanitation, cleaning up post-harvest; traps; trap plants; seasonality, new technologies; temperature; humidity; light intensity; wavelength; photoperiod.
Eretmocerus eremicus
Order Hymenoptera, family Aphelinidae. A parasitoid of whiteflies. May be preyed upon by fungi. Used in over 10 countries in Europe, Africa, North and South America, and Asia. Used from 1995 to 2002; it was replaced by E. mundus. Large market value.
Eretmocerus mundus
Order Hymenoptera, family Aphelinidae. A parasitoid of whiteflies. May be preyed upon by fungi. Used in over 10 countries in Europe. It replaced E. eremicus.
Feltiella acarisuga
Therodiplosis persicae

Order Diptera, family Cecidomyiidae. A biological control agent of mites. Used in over 15 countries in Europe and North and South America. First used in 1990. Medium market value.

Fertilizer
Amount and type affects pests and parasitoids, through change in host suitability. Reducing fertilizers can reduce pest abundance; fine-tuning so that the plant is not affected. Over-ferilization is common in greenhouses, especially those with many plant species. Different fertilizers have different ratios of nutrients.
Finishing
The fourth and last stage of chrysanthemum production. To control for thrips, use Amblyseius swirskii sachets, and continue sprays of Beauveria and Met52.
Flea beetle
Phyllotreta cruciferae

Order Coleoptera, family Chrysomelidae.

Foxglove aphid
Aulacorthum solani

Order Hemiptera, family Aphididae. A common greenhouse pest.

Functional response
Changes in natural enemy behaviour.
Fungus gnat
Order Diptera. Common greenhouse pests.
Gaeolaelaps aculeifer
Hypoaspis aculiferi

Class Arachnida, subclass Acari, family Laelapidae. A biological control agent. Targets sciarids, dipterans, thrips, and mites. Used in over 15 countries in Europe, North Africa, North America, Asia, and Australasai. First used in 1995. Large market value.

Green lacewing
Order Neuroptera, family Chrysopidae. A predator of aphids.
Green peach aphid
Myzus persicae

Order Hemiptera, family Aphididae. A pest of tomatoes. May be controlled by Aphidius or Aphelinus parasitoids, or Aphidoletes predators. A common greenhouse pest.

Greenfly
Aphis gossypii

Melon aphid

Orde Hemiptera, family Aphididae. A pest of tomatoes. May be controlled by Aphidius or Aphelinus parasitoids, or Aphidoletes predators. A common greenhouse pest.

Greenhouse rove beetle
Dalotia coriaria

Order Coleoptera, family Staphylinidae. A biological control agent for thrips.

Greenhouse whitefly
Trialeurodes vaporariorum

Order Hemiptera, family Aleyrodidae. A pest of tomatoes. May be controlled with Encarsia and Eretmocerus parasitoids, Macolophus predators, and Verticillium, Paecilomyces, and Aschersonia pathogens. A common greenhouse pest. Heart-shaped.

Greenhouses
Total world area is 300,000 ha, with 2048 ha in Canada (the size of Guelph). Produces mainly vegetables and ornamentals. Can produce high quality products in large quantities, on a small surface area. Pest damage is not tolerated. Relatively isolated units, particularly in the winter. Particularly suited to biological control, because BCAs are trapped inside. Pests lack winter diapause. Sales are $1.36 billion for ornamentals, and $1.07 billion for vegetables. Costs are 30% labour, 26% plants and materials, 21% operating expenses, 12% crop expenses, 11% energy and heating, and 2% pest control. Common pests are thrips, aphids, mites, whiteflies, leaf miners, caterpillars, pepper weevils, and fungus gnats. It is an ecosystem, and BCAs are not expected to establish vety well, and may need supplemental foods and banker plants. Can be very large, especially for production, up to 40 ha. Ornamentals tend to be smaller, up to 1 ha, and with more species diversity.
Haplothrips leucanthemi
Order Thysanoptera, family Phlaeothripidae.
Heterorhabditis megidis
Phylum Nematoda, family Heterorhabditidae. A biological control agent. Targets coleopterans. Used in over 10 countries in Europe and North America. First used in 1990. Large market value.
Hoop house
A series of hoops with plastic drawn over it, forming a sort of greenhouse.
Host plant resistance (HRP)
A key approach for sustainable pest management. Selection or development and use of crop plants that possess defensive traits against herbivores and disease. Includes traditional breeding and genetic modification.
Hot water treatment
A preventative control method for thrips. Can be very effective, but the process is more elaborate than with dipping. Cuttings need to be at a certain temperature for 30 – 35 minutes.
Hymenoptera
Includes many biological control agents, because hymenopteran parasites are very specific, which is important for preventing undesirable side effects.
Indirect defense
Resistance that affects via the actions of natural enemies.
Induced chemical defence
Chemical defence for plant resistance that is expressed, or expressed to a greater degree, after initial damage by a pest. Found in plants with lower risk of attack. Produces less chance of herbivores adapting. Induced by compounds associated with damage, microbes, herbivores, pathogens, volatile compounds from other plants, or even an insect walking on the plant. The defence reaction is systemic, SAR or ISR. Pathways are regulated by plant hormones and priming of genes that produce defence chemicals. Defence compounds are direct toxins or indirect volatile signals to natural enemies or repellents.
Induced resistance
A mechanism of biopesticides. The microbes induce systemic resistance in the plant.
Inoculative control
Augmentative biological control which relies on establishment of BCAs.
Insidious flower bug
Orius insidiosus

Order Hemiptera, suborder Heteroptera, family Anthocoridae. A biological control agent for thrips. May be supported in greenhouses with banker plants of ornamental pepper which provides them with pollen. Used in North and South America. First used in 1985. Large market value. It was replaced by O. laevigatus.

Integrated pest management (IPM)
A preventative, reliable, profitable, long-term approach to crop protection. Used on a large scale in all main vegetable crops. Insecticide resistance and use of biological control methods made its development necessary. Developed by Stern et al in 1959. Supports practical efforts to achieve sustainable pest management. The harmonious use of multiple methods of control, using a set of decision rules based on ecological principles and economic and social considerations. Incorporates economic thresholds, and control tactics including physical, cultural, chemical, biological, and host plant resistance. Involves a paradgm shift; requires redesign of the production ecosystem to address underlying weaknesses that allow organisms to reach pest status. Influence of all factors affecting pest abundance are considered to create a system that is inherently resistant to many pests, and requires fewer or no treatment with conventional pesticides. Has a systems approach that is an old concept. Must be implemented starting before the plants arrive in the greenhouse; seed treatments, pest control practices at the stock plant producer, and cutting dips. How strategies fit together and interact can be complex; it is as much an art as a science. Every cropping situation is different. More research will make it cheaper and more effective. Doesn’t work as fast as pesticides. It is important to take notes when practicing IPM.
Inundative control
Augmentative biological control with regular release of high numbers of BCAs.
Iphesius degenerans
Class Arachnida. A natural enemy of thrips. May be supported in greenhosues with banker plants of castor bean, which provides them with pollen.
Kontos
A chemical pesticide used against thrips. There are phytotoxicity, biocontrol incompatibility, and efficacy issues. Registered within the last 2 – 3 years.
Lady beetle
Order Coleoptera, family Cocinellidae. A predator of aphids.
Leaf miner
Common greenhouse pests. May be controlled with Diglyphus isaea.
Leptomastix dactylopii
Order Hymenoptera, family Encyrtidae. A biological control agent. Targets pseudococcids. Used in over 15 countries in Europe, North Africa, and North America. First used in 1984. Medium market value.
Liriomyza bryoniae
Order Diptera, family Agromyzidae. A leaf miner. A pest of tomatoes. May be controlled with Dracnusa, Diglyphus, and Opius parasitoids.
Liriomyza trifolii
Order Diptera, family Agromyzidae. A leaf miner. A pest of tomatoes. May be controlled with Dranusa, Diglyphus, and Opius parasitoids.
Lure
An aggregation pheromone for thrips, which causes them to look for high places. Not a good control method on its own, but enhances the use of sticky cards and trap plants.
Lygaeus kalmii
Order Hemiptera, family Lygaeidae.
Lygaeus reclivatus
Order Hemiptera, family Lygaeidae.
Macrolophus pygmaeus
M. nubilis

Order Hemiptera, suborder Heteroptera, family Miridae. A biological control agent. Targets whiteflies. Used in over 20 countries in Europe and Africa. First used in 1994. Large market value.

Macrosiphum euphorbiae
Order Hemiptera, family Aphididae. An aphid. A pest of tomato. May be controlled with Aphidius or Aphelinus parasitoids, or Aphidoletes predators.
Marmalade hoverfly
Episyrphus balteatus

Order Diptera, family Syrphidae. A biological control agent. Targets thrips. Used in over 10 countries in Europe. First used in 1990s. Medium market value.

Mealybug ladybird
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri

Order Coleoptera, family Coccinellidae. Targets coccids and pseudococcids. Used in over 15 countries in Europe, Africa, North and South America, Asia, and Australasia. First used in 1917. Large market value.

Met52
A nematode spray used to control thrips. Used only in early stages of production, when the canopy is open, so nematodes can get into the soil.
Metaphycus lounsburyi
Order Hymenoptera, family Encyrtidae. One of the first BCAs used in augmentative biological control, first used in 1902. Used in Europe and Australia. Targets coccids. Small market value.
Methyl ketone
A secondary metabolite for chemical defence. Has a lethal effect on spider mites. Deters whiteflies from laying eggs on leaves. Expressed only in the leaves, not in the fruit.
Mites
Class Arachnida, subclass Acari. Common greenhouse pests. May be controlled with predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, N. fallacis, N. andersoni, and Amblyseius swirskii and Stethorus punctillum and Feltiella acarsigua. Very small and hard to detect. Includes many biological control agents because they can be easily mass reared, and may control several pest species, and don’t spread over large distances. The eggs of predatory mites require high humidity. May consume thrips in the first instar, or intimitade them, causing decreased feeding (-25%), survival (-50%), lifespan (-40%), and oviposition (-70%). May be sprinkled onto crop or administered in slow-release sachets that work for 4 – 6 weeks. Have plants touching, or providing “bridges” between plants with the sachet may promote dispersal. If plants are in separate pots, the mites cannot travel between pots without a bridge. Sachets should be placed in the shade; high temperature and low humidity in direct sunlight kills the eggs inside, and the sachet works for only 3 weeks.
Monitoring
The most important component of IPM. Holds the program together. Provides the situation-specific information needed to make decisions. Must include good records, allowing you to develop an historical database of pest and disease information.
Morphological defence
A form of plant resistance. Plant architecture, including waxy cuticle, trichomes, and spines prevent insects from eating the plant.
Myrmarachne formicaria
Class Arachnida.
Nabis rosiepennis
Order Hemiptera, family Nabidae.
Nabis rufusculus
Order Hemiptera, family Nabidae.
Natural biological control
Reduction of pests by natural enemies. Has been occurring for 500 million years. Takes place in all ecosystems without human intervention.
Nematodes
Phylum Nematoda. Works best in the soil. Very slow moving, and target pupae. May be sprayed on the canopy or soil as Met52.
Neoseiulus andersoni
Class Arachnida. A predatory mite that can be used as biological control of mites.
Neoseiulus californicus
Amblyseius californicus

Class Arachnida, subclass Acari, family Phytoseiidae. A predatory mite that can be used as biological control for mites and thrips. May be preyed upon by fungi. Used in over 10 countries in Europe, Africa, North and South America, and Asia. First used in 1985. Large market value.

Neoseiulus cucumeris
Amblyseius cucumeris

Class Arachnida, subclass Acari, family Phytoseiidae. A predatory mite that can be used as biological control for mites and thrips. May be preyed upon by fungi. Used in over 10 countries in Europe, Africa, North and South America, and Asia. First used in 1985. Large market value. One of the most used predatory mites used to control thrips.

Neoseiulus fallacis
Class Arachnida. A predatory mite that can be used for biological control of mites.
Nesidiocoris tenuis
Order Hemiptera, family Miridae. A zoophytophagous predator; omnivorous. Induces plant defences. Activates abscisic acid (ABA), and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways in tomatoes, making them less attractive to Bemisia tabaci, and more attractive to its parasitoid, Encarsia formosa.
Numerical response
Changes in natural enemy abundance due to reproduction or aggregation.
Onion thrip
Thrips tabaci

Order Thysanoptera, family Thripidae. A common greenhouse pest.

Organophosphates
Chemical pesticides which include Orthene, Dursban, Malathion, and DDVP. Only DDVP does not have pesticide resistance in thrips, however it is disruptive to biological control programs.
Orius laevigatus
Order Hemiptera, suborder Heteroptera, family Anthocoridae. A biological control agent. Targets thrips. Used in over 15 countries in Europe, North Africa, and Asia. First used in 1993. Large market value. It replaced O. insidiosus.
Orius majusculus
Order Hemiptera, family Anthocoridae. A biological control agent of thrips and aphids. A predatory bug. May prey upon Aphidoletes aphidimyza and Aphidius colemani. Has good persistence, and can act as a pollinator.
Pepper weevil
Anthonomus eugenii

Order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae. A common greenhouse pest.

Pesticides
Chemical control

Likely to remain a key component of IPM. Used as a back-up rather than a primary line of defence. Has reduced toxicity and environmental impact. More specific action than biological control, more compatible with natural enemies.  There are new chemistries, for resistance management. Consider compatibilities between biocontrol and pesticides. Can have toxic effect on plants. Can last for a long time in the environment. Can disrupt biological control. Have a paradigm, because they are easy, and are the most effective and economical solution. Pesticides for thrips in ornamental greenhouses in 2015 included organophosphates, synthetic pyrthroids, Success, Beleaf, Kontos, Pylon, and landscape oil for cutting dips and foliar sprays.

Physically mediated interactions
Doesn’t always function alone. Resin or latex physically limits herbivores by trapping or immobilizing them, but may also deliver toxins. Trichomes serve as physical defence as well as chemical, releasing sticky and toxic compounds. Plant architecture and surface (cuticle, trichomes, spines) affect pests and natural enemies.
Phyllotreta albionica
Order Coleoptera, family Chrysomelidae
Phytoseiulus persimils
Class Arachnida, subclass Acari, family Phytoseiidae. A predatory mite that can be used for biological control of mites. May be preyed upon by fungi. Used in over 20 countries in Europe, Africa, North and South America, Asia, and Australasia. First used in 1968. Large market value.
Plant nutrient-mediated interactions
Proteins, sugars, lipids, nucleic aids, vitamins, and minerals within plant tissue provide nutrition necessary for growth, development, and survival of many pests. Presence, quantity, quality, and availability of these nutrients can be affected by plant variety, season, phenology, and other biotic and abiotic conditions.
Plant resistance
A factor in integrated pest management. Includes morphological and chemical defences. Can be bred into plants.
Plant toxin-mediated interaction
Over 100,000 identified secondary metabolites that have direct defence against herbivorous insects, through anti-nutritive, anti-digestive, or toxic compounds. Constitutive or inducible.
Preparation
The first stage of chrysanthemum production. Decisions you can make before propagation to control for thrips. Choose good plants; varieties differ in susceptibility, with variation in volatiles, flower colour, oviposition, reproduction, and feeding damage. Select resistant cultivars, and use appropriate scouting programs. Use indicator plants and trap plants. Group more easily damaged varieties together, to focus biocontrol. Reduce fertilizer.
Production
The third stage of chrysanthemum production. To control for thrips, use predatory mite sachets, trap plants, sticky cards, microbials, and nematodes.
Propagation
The second stage of chrysanthemum production. To control thrips, research plant risks and choose resistant plants, and reduce fertilizer. Thrips frequently arrive on imported cuttings. Populations will grow rapidly without early treatment, and BCAs cannot catch up and there is disruptions of biocontrol programs. Pesticides may be used to mitigate. “Start clean, stay clean”. Scout incoming propagative material, supported by monitoring systems. Assume propagated material will be infested, even if they are certified clean; thrips are small and easy to miss. Mitigate early. Use preventative options such as dipping, front-loading biocontrol programs, and use of soft pesticides or biopesticides. Use Neosiulus cucumeris, microbials, nematodes, Hypoaspis, and Atheta.
Pylon
A chemical pesticide used against thrips. There are phytotoxicity, biocontrol incompatibility, and efficacy issues. Registered within the last 2 – 3 years.
Quality control
An aspect of biological control. Biomass is reared on different hosts or artificial diets. It must be evaluated for genetic diverity, searching ability, and quality after cold storage, shipment, and release methods. During cold storage, an insect’s metabolism slows, and there can be reduced quality when they thaw out.
Resident thrips
Thrips that are stationary. Once a thrip lands on a plant, it tends to stay there.
Resistance
Conferred by plant traits that reduce the extent of pest injury. Includes constitutive, inducible, direct, and indirect defence.
Rhopalapion longirostre
Order Coleoptera, family Brentidae.
Rivellia steyskali
Order Diptera, family Platystomatidae.
Rose Buitenhuis
From the Vineland Research Station.
Russet mite
Aceria anthocoptes

Class Arachnida. A common greenhouse pest.

Semiochemically mediated interaction
A mechanism by which plant defensive traits can affect biological contorl. Plants produce a wide range of volatile compounds, used by arthropod herbivores to locate host plants. These volatile compounds can change based on herbivore activity.
Scudderia septentrionalis
Order Orthoptera, family Tettigoniidae.
Silverleaf whitefly
Bemisia argentifolii

B. tabaci

Order Hemiptera, family Aleyrodidae. A pest of tomatoes. May be controlled with Encarsia formosa and Eretmocerus parasitoids (Eretmocerus formosa, E. eremicus, E. mundus), Macolophus predators (M. caliginosus), and Verticilium, Paecilomyces, and Aschersonia pathogens. A new pest in sweet potato, complicating IPM programs. They are less attracted to plants treated with Nesidiocoris tenuis.

Spider mite
Tetranychus urticae

Two-spotted spider mite (TSSM)

Class Arachnida. A pest of tomatoes. May be controlled with Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus predators. Overwinters in greenhouses, surviving soil sterilisation. A common greenhouse pest. Offspring per female is much lower in Komeett and Moneymaker tomato varieties than in Endeavor or Vendor, without biological control. Biological control has no effect in Komeett, and increased susceptibility in Moneymaker.

Spotted asparagus beetle
Crioceris duodecimpunctata

Order Coleoptera, family Chrysomelidae.

Spotted cucumber beetle
Diabrotica undecimpunctata

Order Coleoptera, family Chrysomelidae.

Spotted-wing drosophila
Drosophila suzukii

Order Diptera, family Drosophilidae.

Steinernema feltiae
Phylum Nematoda, family Steinernematidae. A biological control agent. Targets sciarids. Used in over 15 countries in Europe, Africa, North and South America, and Australasia. First used in 1984. Large market value.
Stethorus punctillum
Order Coleoptera, family Coccinellidae. A biological control agent of mites.
Sticky cards
A control method for thrips. Catches more thrips than lures, but is more effective with lures. It is easy to estimate how many thrips can be controlled this way; they may be counted directly on the cards.
Stratiolaelaps scimitus
Hypoaspis miles

S. miles

Class Arachnida, subclass Acari, family Laelapidae. A predatory mite that can be used for biological control of thrips and sciarids. May be preyed upon by fungi and Atheta. Used in over 15 countries in Europe, North America, and Australasia. First used in 1995. Large market value.

Striped cucumber beetle
Acalymma vittatum

Order Coleoptera, family Chrysomelidae.

Success
A chemical pesticide used against thrips. Thrips have pesticide resistance.
Sunflower maggot fly
Strauzia longipennis

Order Diptera, family Tephritidae

Supplemental food
Supports BCAs in a greenhouse. Can include pollen, ephestia eggs (a flower moth), artemia cysts, and facitious prey. Pollen may be distributed with a pollen gun.
Synthetic pyrethroids
Chemical pesticides which include Decis. Thrips have pesticide resistance.
Syrphid fly
Order Diptera, family Syrphidae. A predator of aphids.
Systems-based IPM
Understands why there is a problem; what has allowed organisms to reach pest status? Redesign the production ecosystem to address underlying weaknesses. A long-term, preventative approach. Factors include control agents, plants, and environment.
Thrips
Order Thysanoptera. A major pest in greenhouses. May be controlled with broad-spectrum pesticides or biological control. Cheap and/or effective biological control programs are rare. Natural enemies benefit from banker plants. May be controlled by predatory mites Neoseiulus cucumeris, Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, Stratiolaelaps scimutus, as well as Orius insidiosus, Dalotia coriaria, Atheta, and entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes. Develop resistant to many pesticides quickly, and registration for more new products is more expensive in Canada than in USA or Europe; this motivates a shift to biological control in ornamentals including chrysanthemums. Reducing fertilizers can have huge effect on numbers. In chrysanthemums, actions can be taken to control them in all stages of production.
Thyanta acerra
Order Hemiptera, family Pentatomidae.

;

Tyanta custator
Order Hemiptera, family Pentatomidae.
Tolerance
Allows plants to withstand pest injury.
Tomato looper
Chrsodeixis chalcites

Order Lepidoptera, family Noctuidae. A pest of tomatoes. May be controlled with Trichogramma or Bacillus thuringiensis pathogen. Overwinters in greenhouses, surviving soil sterilisation.

Toxomeris marginatus
Order Diptera, family Syrphidae.
Trap
A physical/cultural control. Sticky tape or cards. Can trap a lot of insects. May be combined with pheromones.
Trap plant
A physical/cultural control method for thrips. Adult thrips are more attracted to flowering plants. More effective while adults are dispersing. Catches more thrips than sticky traps or lures, but is more effective with lures. Make sure they are not a breeding ground for the pest; you need to use pesticide on them to kill the thrips. It is hard to estimate how many thrips are controlled this way.
Trichome
Hairs on a plant. May have glands which contain secondary metabolites for chemical defence. Can physically inhibit the movement of insects on the surface of the plant; pests and BCAs alike. More trichomes are found in wild tomatoes; this could be bred into cultivated varieties.
Trichogramma evanescens
Order Hymenoptera, family Trichogrammatidae. A biological control agent. Targets lepidopterans. Used in over 10 countries in Europe, North Africa, and Asia. First used in 1975. Large market value.
Trophic interactions
The interactions between plants, herbivores, and their natural enemies. Multi-trophic exchange is key.
Urophora affinis
Order Diptera, family Tephritidae.
Urophora hispanica
Order Diptera, family Tephritidae.
Urophora jaculata
Order Diptera, family Tephritidae.
Urophora solstitialis
Order Diptera, family Tephritidae.
Urophora stylata
Order Diptera, family Tephritidae.
Urophora terebrans
Order Diptera, family Tephritidae
Urophora variabilis
Order Diptera, family Tephritidae.
Volatile compound
Released from platns that are damaged or in stress, to induce chemical defence in other plants nearby. Natural enemies use it to find pests.
Western flower thrip (WFT)
Frankliniella occidentalis

Order Thysanoptera, family Thripidae. A common greenhouse pest. Have developed resistance to most registered pesticides in Candada, motivating a shift to biological control. Can reproduce very quickly.

Whiteflies
Order Hemiptera, family Aleyrodidae. A major pest in greenhouses. Includes Bemisia. May be controlled with parasitoids Encarsia formosa, Eretmocerus eremius, Eretmocerus mundus, predatory mites Amblyseius swirskii and Amblydromalus limonicus, as well as Delphastus catalinae, Dicyphus hesperus, and entomopathogenic fungi. It flies through a crop and choses a plant to lay eggs on; it tends to avoid plants with methyl ketones. Plants without methyl ketones could be used as trap plants.
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