A pesticide which is not compatible with biocontrol with insidious pirate bugs.
A camera is mounted on a drone. Can detect early stress, diseases, and senescence. Includes near-infrared cameras (eNDVI). It is still 5 – 10 years away from being used for IPM.
A pheromone which attrats individuals of either sex, adults or larvae. Operates over a long range, offering good potential to mediate pest attack, luring pests away from the crop. Best understood in Coleoptera, but is present in other orders. Complex chemical structure elicits a complex behaviour. Used for monitoring, surveillance, and trapping. Can be used for mountain pine beetle and marmorated stink bug.
An IPM update distributed as a fax.
An IPM update distributed as a recorded message that can be heard over the telephone.
A pheromone which raises alert in conspecifics, as a defence response and/or to initiate avoidance. Identified most frequently in social insects: hymenopterans and isopterans. Highly volatile. Found in bee stings. Not often used for pest management, but may be masked over to prevent certain behaviours.
Order Coleoptera, family Staphylinidae. A genus of natural enemies of carrot rust fly.
Alfalfa leafcutter bee
Order Hymenoptera, family Megachlidae. A managed solitary bee. Studied for economic reasons. Collects leaves to build its nest. Can be purchased from Western Canada in pupal leaf cells reared in a growth chamber. May be reared February – October; more accessible than honey bees. May be preyed upon by Chalcidoid wasps. Breed in nest boxes in the field, which can have thousands of holes where they lay eggs; makes measurement of reproductive activity very easy. Foraging range is 100 m, making them suitable for field and tent experiments. If too many males are in a tent it can decrease female fertility due to too many mating attempts. Ovary and egg development only occurs in adult females after they consume pollen. Chitin synthesis inhibitors usually impact larvae and pupae, but may also affect eggs. Laboratory assays can quickly assess effects without having to wait a year for progeny emergence. Used to pollinate alfalfa for seed production.
Order Hymenoptera, family Halictidae. A managed solitary bee. Studied for economic reasons. Lives underground in gregarious nests, to share guard duty. Pesticides can leach into soils, into their nests.
Semiochemicals which elicit an interspecific response. Includes allomones, kairomones, and sinomones.
An allelochemical which benefits the source organism. Includes repellents such as phytotoxins produced by plants to protect against insects.
Order Coleoptera, family Carabidae. Abundance was 11.6% in 2015.
Order Coleoptera, family Carabidae. Abundance was 11.5% in 2016.
Order Coleoptera, family Carabidae. Abundance was 2.3% in 2016.
Order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae. Fungus farmers. Females excavate tunnels for their brood of larvae, but do not feed on woody tissue. The female carries on her body ambrosia fungus, upon which the brood will feed. Large numbers of beetles, repeated attacks, or attack of a young or sick tree can cause tree death. Ontario growers reported issues in 2015 in some orchards. May be vectors of plant pathogens. Includes black stem borer and Asian ambrosia beetle.
Ambrosia beetle control
Beetles under bark are protected from topical sprays. Use preventative repellents, however none are registered in Canada. Timing of control is challenging, particularly if several species are present. Remove and burn trees that are 75% or more dead or dying; this is key. Maintain tree health to prevent beetle colonization, and allow trees with low levels of infestation to recover.
Ambrosia beetle monitoring
Look for young trees showing leaf yellowing, poor extension and shoot growth, tip die-back, cankers, or bark discolouration. Entry holes are 1 mm in diameter. There may be toothpick frass which breaks off easily. Bucket traps show when females are active; beginning at green tip, employ ethanol solution as lure and killing solution, changed weekly, or commercial ethanol lure and soapy water. Regular monitoring is required to determine early and peack activity periods.
Entomopathogenic nematodes that remain stationary in the soil, with a sit-and-wait approach. Includes Steinernema carpocapsae and S. scapterisci. Have poor chemoreception, and are unable to detect hosts from even a few milimeters away. They nictate at the soil surface. Found in the upper stratum of the soil surface litter and duff. Suitable for highly mobile hosts such as cutworms and armyworms.
American grapevine leafhopper
Order Hemiptera, family Cicadellidae. A pest of grapes in Austria.
American serpentine leaf miner (ASL)
Order Diptera, family Agromyzidae. An economic pest of chrysanthemums. Larvae feed and tunnel in leaves, resulting in serpentine mines that make the leaf brittle. Females mine the leaf to oviposit. There is zero tolerance to damage in ornamentals. Develoepd extensive resistance to insecticides. May be controlled with sterile insect technique: males are sterilized as pupae, stored in cool, dry conditions, then released in greenhouses. Males can have residual fertility after irradiation, and may need increased dosage, however emergence and flight ability can be compromised.
From the University of Guelph. Did work in spotted wing drosophila.
Order Coleoptera, family Carabidae. Abundance was 27.2% in 2015, and 13.0% in 2016.
Order Hymenoptera, family Formicidae. Leave trail pheromones on foraging trails. The trail is stronger the more ants go by.
Order Hymenoptera, family Aphelinidae. A parasitoid of aphids in Hawaii.
Order Hemiptera. There are no native or beneficial aphids in Hawaii, so there is no concern for non-target effects of biological control. Dozens of species were introduced in the 1920s including Braconidae and Aphelinidae primary parasitoids, and hyperparastioids; this has a high risk for interspecific interactions. A pest of cereals and potatoes in Austria.
Order Hymenoptera, family Braconidae. A parasitoid of aphids in Hawaii. It is the main parasite of non-mummified aphids. Thought to have out-competed Lysephlebus testaceipes, but competition was actually mediated by a generalist hyperparasitoid.
Order Hemiptera, family Aphididae. An aphid found in Kauai and Hawaii. Parasitized by three parasitoids and two hyperparasitoids. Non-mummified aphids were parasitized mostly by Aphidius colemani, and non-mummified aphids were parasitized mostly by Syrphophagus. Parasitism level is 40%, hyperparasitism 7%, and multiparasitism 2%. There is failure to control the aphid with parasitoids, due to indirect non-targete effects of hyperparasitoids.
The family of plants which includes carrots, celery, parsnips, dill, and parsley. Name comes from umbel inflorescences.
Apple blossom weevil
Order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae. A pest of fruits in Austria. Matures while feeding on flower buds. Oviposits into a closed flower bud. Larvae feed on floral organs, and flowers fail to open. Causes indirect damage. Chemical control occurs before bloom.
Apple cider vinegar (ACV)
An attractant of spotted wing drosophila. Used in traps as bait. May be mixed with 10% ethanol and sugar, yeast, and water (mixed in a separate cup). Has poor selectivity.
Order Diptera, family Tephritidae. Females oviposit in fruit, and mark the surface with epidiectic pheromones to deter other females. The phreomone can be sprayed in orchards to prevent pest build-up.
There is a $85 million farmgate value in Ontario. Uniform, high density orchards are preferred because they are efficient and profitable, with high value varieties and optimal fruit quality and yield. Equipment costs are $5,100/acre for vertical axis and $10,400/acre for super spindle systems. The cost of pre-planting establishment is approximately $44,000/acre.
Order Lepidoptera, family Noctuidae. A pest of turf. Can be controlled with Steinernema carpocapsae.
Artichoke plume moth
Order Lepidoptera, family Pterophoridae. A pest of artichokes. Can be controlled with Steinernema carpocapsae.
Asian ambrosia beetle
Granulate ambrosia beetle (GAB)
Order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae. Attacks healthy trees. It is established in the USA, and has been identified in Ontario.
Includes bok choy, pak choy, and nappa cabbage. Produced 40% on muck soil.
Aster leafhopper (ALH)
Order Hemiptera, family Cicadellidae. A pest of carrots. Local populations overwinter as eggs on winter grains. Migrant adults blow in from the USA. Hatch early in May, and adults move into spring grain, grasses, vegetables, and weeds, usually appearing in June. There are a wide range of cultivated and weed hosts. Has 2 – 5 overlapping generations per year. Vectors aster yellows. Developing pesticide ressistance and living longer than expected.
Aster leafhopper identification
Adults are greenish grey, 3 mm in length. There are six black spots on the head. It has opaque wings that expand past its body. The nymph is harder to identify.
Aster leafhopper monitoring
Has a degree day model, with a base of 9?C. Egg hatch is expected at 128 DD, in May, and adults emerge at 390 DD in early June. Can be caught using the same orange sticky traps as carrot rust fly. Can be caught with sweep nets. Often the first sign is aster yellows in carrots, with red leaves.
A disease vectored by aster leafhopper. It is often the first sign of this pest in carrots. Causes proliferation of the meristem at the crown, with lots of pale green, sometimes twisted or red leaves. There is proliferation of the roots, and carrots taste very bitter. Requires several hours of feeding to transmit, with a four-day incubation period. Symptoms appear in 7 days in young plants, and 14 – 21 days in older plants. It is not passed from adult to offspring. Caused by a phytoplasm.
Augmentative biological control
The release of additional natural enemies, when too few are present to control a pest effectively. Has a temporary effect. Used in greenhouses. Continuous release; the goal is not establishment, but on-going control.
Population is 8.7 million. Capital city is Vienna. There are 9 federal states, or bundeslander. Has been a member of the EU since 1995, and is a neutral country, not part of any military organisations. Known for traditional music (home of Mozart), schnitzel, strudel, Red Bull, skiing, wine, and beers including Gosser and Stiegl. Total land area is 83,878 km2, with a lot of mountains and forest, and 27,286 km2 used for agriculture in 2013. The average farm size is 44 ha, and 21% of farms are organic. Important field crops include winter wheat, grain corn, barley, soybean, winter rape, oil squash, horse bean, grain pea, sugar beet, potato, silage, green maize, grass-cover leys, onions, peas, carrots, apples, pears, apricots, and grapes. Formation of laws for plant protection involves the EU (regulations, directives), federal government (framework legislation) including BMLFUK, AGES, BAES, and BFW, and each 9 federal states (legislation on implementation and enforcement). IPM is standard in agriculture and forestry. GMOs are prohibited, except for a few exceptions including some potatoes.
Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES)
A federal government agency of Austria. Provides scientific research and consulting for BMLFUK and BAES. Performs laboratory testing for BAES and federal state protection services. Produces warning services of insect pests, using monitoring and forecasting models, since 2015.
Austrian Federal Office of Food Safety (BAES)
A federal government agency of Austria. Uses scientific research, consulting, and laboratory testing from AGES. Responsible for import control of plant materials, fruit, cut flowers, potatoes, seeds, and soil. Must adhere to BMLFUK plant protection legislation.
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
A bacteria that produces a biopesticide. Global market shares for foliar applications are $166.3 million in 2003, and $153.7 million in 2009.
Order Hemiptera, family Pentatomidae. Parasitized by Trissolcus euschistii.
An entomopathogenic fungus. Global market shares were $7.4 million in 2003, and $21.7 million in 2009.
Order Hymenoptera. When a bee stings, it releases an alarm pheromone that will attract other bees for attack. Special guard bees can release alarm pheromone when it senses an intruder. Leaves a trail pheromone on quality food sources during foraging, to attract other bees. If you are stung by a bee, use a strait edge such as a credit card to remove the sting, not your finger, which will probably push it further in. Can ingest insecticides orally through nectar, pollen, or guttation fluid, or from contact by walking on or rubbing against residues, or from topical applications directly onto the insect. Exposure may be chronic and persistent from repeated applications, or acute from a single application.
Direct manipulation of animal behaviour as a pest management tactic. Sensorial input to the nervous system results in a behavioural response that is species-specific.
Order Coleoptera, family Carabidae. Abundance was 4.5% in 2016.
Order Coleoptera, family Carabidae. A natural enemy of carrot rust fly. Abundance was 8.6% in 2016.
Order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae. A pest of turf. Can be controlled with Steinernema carpocapsae.
A category of control methods which includes pheromones for mass trappign and mating disruption.
The variety of life. Multileveled. Includes variety and relative abundance. Redundancy provides stability and recovery to ecosystem function. “Only by creating and applying reliable measures of diversity can we measure how it varies spatially and temporally, and recognize influences that create and destroy it”. Assumes that all species and individuals are equal, and that species abundance has been recorded using appropriate and comparable units. Surveying and monitoring provides baseline data. Tracks changes over time of distribution of species. Can be used to measure effectiveness of management tactics and conservation efforts. An indicator of ecosystem health. Many methods of measuring it.
The reduction of pest populations by natural enemies. Implies an active human role, manipulating a natural interaction to benefit agricultural production. Can be used for insects, weeds, and diseases. Cost-effective and self-sustainable. Once established, capable of maintenance and dispersal, following pests into new environments. Compatible with other management efforts. Parasitoids and predators provide ecosystem services, reducing pest populations below an economic threshold. Historical stages include preliminary efforts, intermediary parasites, and modern period. Environmentally sound when practiced responsibly. Includes augmentative, conservation, classical, and neoclassical biological control.
Biological control agent (BCA)
Natural enemies including parasites, insect parasitoids, and insect predators. Use the host as food.
Natural enemies including fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Use the host as a factory to reproduce. Global market shares were $265.8 million in 2003, and $794.2 million in 2009; a huge increase.
Black cherry fruit fly (BCFF)
Order Diptera, family Tephritidae. Overwinters in the soil as pupae, and new adults emerge in late May to early July; peak emergence is mid-June. Females lay eggs in cherries as they ripen; there is zero tolerance at harvest. Monitored with yellow sticky cards and ammonium bait. Fruit protection is required from green to harvest.
Black stem borer (BSB)
Order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae. An ambrosia beetle. There have been recent issues in New York and Michigan, and it is present in Ontario. It attacks apparently healthy trees. Overwinters as adults in galleries. Active late April or early May, during forsythia bloom. Females outnumber males 10:1. Mated females colonize new trees, introducing the symbiotic fungus Ambrosia hartigii. Has two generations per year. Attracted to stressed trees by the ethanol they emit. Prefers trees less than 10 cm in diameter. Has many hosts including forest and ornamental species. Invade orchards from the edge, flying over 100 m to colonize new trees.
Black vine weevil
Order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae. A healthy pupa or larva is white, but when infected with entomopathogenc nematodes it turns brown.
Order Coleoptera, family Scarabaeidae. A pest of rape in Austria.
A trap used to monitor for carrot weevil. It is a stack of separated boards, with a large hole in the middle where carrot bait is placed. The weevils go between the boards, and are shaken out for counting. There are 4 per field, with two sets of two traps. Set out early May to capture adults.
A disease forecasting program for onion botrytis leaf blight. Measures cumulative DSV to initiate sprays.
A disease forecasting program for lettuce downy mildew. Measures sporulation infection period.
Order Hemiptera, family Pentatomidae. Parasitized by Trissolcus thyantae, T. euschistii, and T. brochymenae.
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB)
Order Hemiptera, family Pentatomidae. Found all over the world. Originates from East Asia, in China, Japan, Taiwan, and Korea. Bugs in North America originated from Hebei or Beijing regions of Canada. Has over 200 hosts including econonomically important field crops, fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. Unpredictable immigration into crops. High risk hosts include apple, Asian pear, beans, bee-bee tree, edamame, eggplant, European pear, grape, hazelnut, Japanese pagoda tree, nectarine, okra, peach, Peking tree lilac, pepper, redbud, sweet corn, Swiss chard, and tomato. Adults and nymphs cause damage to fruits from the inside; damage is hard to notice on the outside. Lays eggs in masses 16 – 20 mm, hard to find, located on the underside of leaves. Identifying host eggs morphologically is only possible by rearing eggs that lack parasitoids. The bug can sometimes emerge when it has a parasitoid that fails to develop. Collected 48 egg masses, with 914 eggs total: did DNA barcoding for identification of host and parasitoid, with 100% ID success. Naturally aggregate in homes and attics for the winter, releasing aggregation pheromone; thousands can enter a house. They can squeeze through seals on doors. Over 26,000 were found in one house. Can overwinter under tree bark. When you startle or crush them they release a very horrible, bitter smell, however they do not bite. An excellent hitchhiker. It has displaced native stinkbug species. Full lifecycle occurs in a crop. Urban and natural habitats are population reservoirs. A generalist feeder, specializing in mature fruit but has a mixed diet that is adapted to landscapes with changing temporary resources. Host suitability changes over the season. Feeds on peaches from fruit set to harvest, and on apples near harvest. Has transient visits and feeding bouts in apple. Adults can fly over 2 km/day. Nymphs can walk over 25 m/day.
Brown marmorated stink bug control
Limited natural enemies. Interested in biological control using Scelionidae egg parasitoids. Potential BCAs are Trissolcus thyantae, T. euschistii, and T. japonicus. Native species have egg parasitoids which may not attack BMSB; this is under evaluation. Has two aggregation pheromone chemicals produced exclusively by adult males. The chemicals are more effective as a blend than alone, and attracts adults and nymphs. Attract-and-kill with attraction to a spatially precise location, with long retention time and effective killing mechanism. Sticky traps are the best because they don’t release their smell when caught. Hard to target and kill. Chemical products have limited efficacy and short residual activity. Those registered in Canada include Malation 85E, Lannate-Toss-N-Go, Clutch, and Actara. An economical threshold of 10 adults per trap was just as effective as 1 adult per trap. Control perimeter driven pests. Interrupt chemical communication. Manipulate the landscape level interface with agriculture, buildings, and wild areas.
Brown marmorated stink bug history
Recently established in Canada at fairly low levels. Established in North America and Europe. First reognized in Allentown, Pennsylvania in 2001. Reported in Hamilton in 2010, and in 2012 it was an established population. There are specimens from the 1990s, but at that point in time it wasn’t recognized as an invasive species. An emergency management theme was funded through the OMAFRA-University of Guelph partnership agreement, led by Prof. Scott-Dupree, to assess phenology of BMSB in Ontario, management strategies and tools, diagnostic methods, participatory education programs, and surveys to determine the distribution and abundance.
Brown marmorated stink bug identification
The size of a pinky finger nail. There are two white bands on the antennae and legs. It has a flat face with juga that doesn’t extend beyond the tylus, and there is a spur behind its head. The edge of the pronotum is smooth, and the humerus is rounded.
Order Hemiptera, family Delphacidae. A pest in Indonesia that had an outbreak after indiscriminate pesticide used in 1945, and again after 1998 when there was social upheaval. Found in most Southeastern Asian countries.
Order Hymenoptera, family Apidae. A non-Apis bee. Important for greenhouse production of tomatoes and peppers. Live in small hives, with honey stored in pots. Colonies can have 50 to a few hundred workers. Produce their own wax for combs and pots. Can be obtained all year round. It has three peaks of visual absorption: yellow, blue, and UV.
Bunny ear stage
Two-leaf stage in carrots.
Cabbage seed stalk curculio
Order Coleopter, family Curculionidae. A pest of rape in Austria.
Cabbage stem flea beetle
Order Coleoptera, family Chrysomelidae. A pest of rape in Austria.
Canadian Agricultural Adaptation Program (CAAP)
A source of IPM funding at MCRS. Includes the Bradford Co-Op (AAC). Current projects are innovative technologies for improved plant health of field vegetables.
Originates in Central and South America. Introduced to sugarcane production systems to control cane beetle in Florida, Hawaii, the Caribbean, and Australia in 1935. It is a very large toad. It feeds on many insect species, bats, toads, and even small mammals. It is preyed upon by alligators, snakes, and dogs, however it can cause serious harm to them because it has poison glands that are toxic to many predators. A few predators have adapated. It is a huge ecological problem in Hawaii, where it is very common and is often roadkill. Many species are endemic to Hawaii, and they are threatened by cane toad.
Carrot rust fly (CRF)
Order Diptera, family Psilidae. An economically important pest of carrots, wild and cultivated, as well as celery and parsley. In Ontario it overwinters as pupae in the soil. There are two, sometimes three generations per year: early June, mid August, and late September/early October. There has been a change in pest pressure. It has a limited host range. Produces more tunnelling than carrot weevil, but more so near the bottom (tip) of the carrot. Adults feed outside of the field, and oviposit in carrots. A concern in the Holland Marsh.
Carrot rust fly control
There is only one product registered. Primarily controlled with chemicals. Natural enemies include Aleocharinae, Bombidion quadrimaculatum, Trechus quadristriatus, Staphylinidae, Histeridae, and spiders. There were 1,100 individuals in 28 traps in 2015, and 3,000 individuals in 40 traps in 2016.
Carrot rust fly identifiation
A shiny black fly with an orange head and yellow legs, 5 mm in length. Larvae are 6 – 7 mm, yellowish-white.
Carrot rust fly monitoring
Has a degree day model, with a base at 3?C. First generation of adults is expected at 329 – 395 DD, and the second generation at 1399 – 1711 DD. Five orange sticky traps are used per field. Treatment thresholds are 0.1 – 0.2 flies per trap per day. In the 1980s studies were done on what colour trap catches them best. Found that acrylic and disposable traps worked best. Monitoring methods for IPM are being evaluated for colour, material, and angle
Order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae. A pest of carrots. Peak oviposition is mid-May to early June. Adults overwinter in the soil and plant debris, then migrate into carrot fields in the spring. Females chew a hole in the petiole or crown, and deposit 2 – 3 eggs before sealing the cavity. Larvae develop inside the carrot, creating feeding tunnels before pupating in the soil. Has 1 – 2 generations per year. There has been a shift in oviposition period and second generation. It has developed resistance to Imidan. It can overwinter as an adult in the field; conditions kill off most, but some survive. Damage is cavities near the top of the carrot, which are difficult to excise from the root in processing, making carrots unmarketable. Starting to attack even very young plants.
Carrot weevil control
Spray threshold is 1.5 cumulative weevils per trap at two leaf stage, or 5 cumulative weevils per trap at fourth leaf stage. Chemicals include Imidan, Matador, and Rimon.
Carrot weevil identification
Adults are 6 mm in length, tan with dark brown blotches. Larvae are yellowish cream, legless, with a brown head.
Carrot weevil monitoring
Monitoring methods for IPM are being evaluated, for overwintering adults appearing in rotations, and spatial dispersal. Has a degree day model, with a base at 7?C, and accumulation begins on April 1. Useful for predicting egg-laying activity only in the first generation. First oviposition is expected at 147 DD, and 90% oviposition by 455 DD. Monitored with boivin traps.
Family Apiaceae. Produced 50% on muck soil. Includes Cello (packaging), Jumbo (processing), and bunched carrots. Seeded in late April – June, and harvested August – November. Mechanically harvested by pulling tops from the ground. Weed control is very important, especially in early season. Pests include carrot weevil, carrot rust fly, aster leafhopper, and cutworms. As a dicot it is often rotated with the monocot onions. Most go into slicing and processing. Four pounds of carrots are produced in the Holland Marsh for every person in Canada each year.
Deformities in strawberry fruits caused by feeding of tarnished plant bug.
Produced 95% on muck soil. Production has reduced in the Holland Marsh. More is produced in Quebec now.
Celery leaf curl
A new disease which was detected in the Holland Marsh in 2012.
Cereal leaf beetle
Order Coleoptera, family Chrysomelidae. A pest of cereals in Austria.
Order Hymenoptera. A parasitoid of alfalfa leafcutter bee. Outbreaks can occur in rearing groups. Life cycle can complete in 12 days, enough for a second generation to kill even more bees.
Supplies the most medical X-ray products in the world.
Gave invasive flower seeds to customers, trying to save the bees.
Chemical company sponsorships
A source of IPM program funding at MCRS. Registered products are listed in IPM updates. New product registrations are announced. Important use information is developed.
Global market shares were $29.1 billion in 2003, and $37.3 billion in 2009.
Cherry fruit fly (CFF)
Order Diptera, family Tephritidae. Overwinters in the soil as pupae, and adults emerge in late May to early July; peak emergence is late June. One generation per year. Females lay eggs in cherries as they ripen; there is zero tolerance at harvest. Monitored with yellow sticky cards and ammonium bait. Fruit protection is required from green to harvest.
Anyone who finds an interesting insect in Ontario can get agricultural, food, and rural information at 1-877-424-1300, or [email protected] Reponds to farm, agribusiness, and rural business inquiries. Around 2,000 brown marmorated stink bugs were reported by this avenue since April 2012.
A plant essential oil that is a repellent. It is 35% citronellal, 22% geraniol, and 12% citronellol.
Found in citronella and geranium. It is highly repellent.
Working on a comprehensive inventory of native bee species. Looking at plant-pollinator interactions and differences in bee communities and guilds between sites and over time. Did work on measuring pollinator diversity.
Classical biological control
Importation and release of natural enemies in a new area where it does not occur naturally, to control an invasive pest. Single or multiple releases, intending to establish and provide long-term control. The pest target has arrived in a new region, where there are no natural enemies to keep them in check. There is foreign exploration for natural enemies in the area of origin, where there is higher diversity of natural enemies that evolved with the pest in its native range. Risks include non-target effects.
Can cause new insects or diseases, or changes in pest biology. Can cause expansion of range of many insects, potentially contributing to pest damage, especially in developing countries. Example: mosquitoes are now found in higher altitudes.
Order Coleoptera, family Carabidae. Abundance was 2.3% in 2015, and 1.6% in 2016.
Order Hemiptera, family Miridae. A non-target host of Peristenus, preyed upon mostly by P. pallipes.
A group 4A insecticide registered for control of brown marmorated stink bug. Provides suppression. Two applications works for 7 days.
Order Lepidoptera, family Tortricidae. Can be controlled using mating disruption. Successfully controlled with sterile insect technique in BC in Okanagan since 1982. In Okanagan the valley is surrounded by mountains, keeping the sterile moths in the valley. A pest of fruits in Austria.
When all growers in a region perform the same action simultaneously, such as a pest treatment. A challenge in implementing IPM in developing countries. It was ranked by respondents as the most important obstacle to IPM adoption in developing countries. It is especially important in communities with small land holdings, where pests can easily spread from one field to another. Difficult to achieve collaboration; the same technology must be available throughout.
Colorado potato beetle
Order Coleoptera, family Chrysomelidae. A pest of potatoes in Austria.
Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau International (CABI)
Commonwealth Institute for Biological Control (CIBC)
Established in 1947. All biological control projects in Canada must go through this organization. Located in Delemont, Switzerland. In close collaboration with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and Canadian Forest Service. They hire summer interns.
A collection of species occurring at a specified place and time. Defined by geography, either with arbitrary or physical boundaries.
Order Diptera, family Tachinidae. A parasitoid of gypsy moth. Introduced in eastern USA in 1906. Established quickly, but failed to prevent or reduce gypsy moth outbreaks, yet release continued into the 1970s. It is multivoltine. It overwinters within a larval host. A highly polyphagous generalist, with around 200 host species in Europe. A dominant parasitoid of forest lepidopterans. It caused decline of several giant silk moth species. This type of failure would not occur today, due to new regulations.
Conservation biological control
A practice that aims to conserve, attract, and retain existing natural enemies. Used in gardens and intercropping systems. Creates an environment to maximize attraction and retention of natural enemies to provide long-term control. There is no release of natural enemies. Actions and environmetal modifications the preserve, protect, or enhance natural enemies. Selection of IPM-friendly pesticides. Artificial structures such as nesting sites for birds. Supplemental foods such as extrafloral nectaries and sugar. Alternative hosts, including alfalfa strips. Improving pest-natural enemy synchrony by modification of adverse production practices: less disturbance, less chemicals, harvesting practices. Narrow-spectrum control. Natural enemies in the Holland Marsh have increased since 2015.
A pesticide that is compatible with biocontrol with insidious pirate bug.
Order Lepidoptera, family Crambidae. A pest of cranberries. Can be controlled wtih Steinernema carpocapsae.
Entomopathogenic nematodes that actively move through the soil. Includes Steinernema glaseri and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Highly mobile, with relatively large search areas, around one square foot. Excellent chemoreception, responsible to host-related volatiles including CO2. Found throughout the soil profile. Suitable for sedentary subterranean hosts such as scarab larvae and root weevils.
A kairomone that attracts striped cucumber beetle. Produced by cucumber plants.
Order Lepidoptera. A pest of turf and carrots. Can be controlled with Steinernema carpocapsae. The larvae of noctuid moths.
A group 3 insecticide. Can control spotted wing drosophila. Includes Ripcord 400 EC.
Degree day model
An insect forescasting model. Predicts overwintering emergence of insects, for insecticide application timing. Information is delivered to growers in IPM updates and word of mouth by scouts.
Delivery technology of a semiochemical should have: a constant release rate over time; release different pheromones at different release rates; protected from degradation; well-timed for pest and crop; releases all the pheromone; allows for easy application, even aerially; biodegradable; non-toxic; inexpensive. 75% of a pheromone trap’s efficacy is in trap design. Chemicals can be damaged by UV; place them in the shade.
Dennis Van Dyk
Ran the IPM programs in the Holland Marsh. Now works for OMAFRA as a root crop specialist. Was a research technician for studies on diseases in carrots, including nematodes. A background in pathology, but is responsible for all parts of production.
Face problems such as water scarcity, population growth, land scarcity, pollution, and pests. Do not assume that developed country models would work in developing countries; many mistakes have been made in the past. Know what growers want; do participatory research, and limit prescriptive aid. Trust that people are smart, innovative, receptive, and hardworking.
Characterizes the diversity of a sample or community by a single number. Includes species richness, evenness, and Shannon diversity index. There are many, each emphasizing different aspects of diversity. Can be compared to values in literature.
A DNA-based technique. Determines variation in defined segments of COI genes, 658 bp, a specific mitochondrial gene found in all animals. Can be used to identify parasitoids in certain stages.
Includes DNA sequencing, DNA barcoding, and species-specific PCR. Detects DNA of parasitized host insects, telling us what has attacked the host, but doesn’t necessarily tell us if it was successful. Provides species-specific information on parasitoid (eggs, larvae, and adults), host (eggs, larvae), and other parasitoids (multiparasitism, competition, hyperparasitism). Can detect trophic interactions between host and parasitoids, between parasitoids, or between parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. Processes a large number of samples in a 96-well plate. Important in conservation and classical biological control, for predicting potential non-target impacts before release of exotic parasitoids.
A DNA-based technique. Determines variation in nucleotides in segments of DNA. Finds the genetic signature of different species.
Dominion Parasite Laboratory
Located in Belleville, Ontario. Established in 1929. A biological control research institute with top-ranked entomologists, and the largest concentration of biological control specialists in the world. Very active until the 1960s, when the insecticide era began, and it closed in 1972.
A disease forecasting program for onion downy mildew. Measures sporulation infection period. Looks at the weather, and predicts when spores could be germinating.
Economic threshold (ET)
Saves insecticides and fungal sprays. May not be appropriate to use in developing countries. Assumes that pesticide is available and ready for use. Even if it is available, farmers may ignore thresholds to account for perceived rather than measured risk. Relies on aggregating a great deal of data, which is not always practical.
Lives on the outside of its host. Must avoid being groomed off.
Order Diptera, family Cecidomyiidae. A parasitoid of aphids in Hawaii.
Lives inside the host, emerging when it finishes feeding.
Entomopathogenic nematode (EPN)
Phylum Nematoda, class Secernentea, order Rhabditida, families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae, genera Sterinernema, Neosterinernema, and Heterorhabditis. A parasitic nematode. Has an egg stage, four juvenile stages, a pre-infective juvenile (PI) stage, and an infective juvenile (IJ) stage before adult stage. Eah species is in a symbiotic relationship with a single bacterial species that is carried in a special gut pouch. The EPN enters an insect through the anus, mouth, or spiracles. The bacteria is excreted from the nematode through anus or mouth, and migrates into the insect’s intestine and hemolymph, releasing toxins that kill the insect in 24 – 48 hours. The bacteria transform the host into an environment stuiable for growth and reproduction of the EPN: disables immune response by killing the insect, transforms its tissues into food, and itself provides food for the nematode. The EPN reproduces within the host’s body, which eventually bursts open with IJs. The bacteria cannot survive in the soil, and depends on the nematode for protection, vectoring to insect hosts, and compromising of the host’s immunity. Used as classical, conservation, and augmentative BCAs. Produced in vivo in larvae, or in vitro in beef kidney or fat, in a sponge with emulsification and liquid fermentation. This can produce 1012 IJs each month, in 80,000 L. There is some secrecy around the exact method of production. Applied as clay granules, in a spray, or in micro-irrigation. Move through the soil along spaces between soil particles; best movement is in sandy loam. Global market shares were $16.2 million in 2003, and $13.8 million in 2009; it has not been embraced. Application must be synchronized with host life cycle, preferably on a cloudy day with no rain. Four sequential steps in host selection process:
3. Host acceptance
4. Host suitability
Entomopathogenic nematode advantages
Compatible with a wide range of chemical and biological controls. Can persist in the environment. Can play an indirect role in improving soil quality. Broad insect pest host range. Rapid speed of kill; effect is as rapid as Bt. Actively seeks or ambushes hosts. Mass in vivo or in vitro production is possible. Easy application. Safe to most vertebrates and non-target invertebrates, and to the food supply. Little or no registration is required.
Entomopathogenic nematode disadvantages
Expensive to produce. Limited shelf-life, and must be refrigerated. Limited by the environment. Requires certain moisture, with low efficacy in low relative humidity. Requires 25 – 35% soil moisture. Temperature requirements depend on species and native habitat. Sensitive to UV radiation; medium-wave UV over 4 minutes reduces pathogenicity. Avoid UV light exposure by applying in the morning or evening. Sensitive to some pesticides. Soil cehmistry is the most important efficacy factor; cannot live in high salinity or high or low pH. Saturated soils with anaerobic conditions kills the EPNs, and they can often be washed away in water drenches. Poor movement in clay soils with small particles. Can be killed in the spray tank by settling, overheating, or exposure to the sun. Effect is not as rapid as pesticides. There is risk of effect to non-target organisms.
A pheromone used to mark hosts, reducing competition between individuals. Used in pest management for apple maggot.
Essential oils and plant extracts
Global market shares were $61.2 million in 2003, and $539.1 million in 2009. An alternative to pesticides.
A source of European regulation and legislature information.
European cherry fruit fly (ECFF)
Order Diptera, family Tephritidae. Originates from mainland Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia. A pest of Prunus fruits: sweet, sour, black, and mahaleb cherries, as well as honeysuckle, Lonicera. A photo was taken of one by an amateur entomologist in a park in Mississauga. There was a follow-up survey by CFIA in summer 2016 in Toronto and main cherry production areas of Ontario including Hamilton. This was the first detection in North America. It is a regulated and quarantined pest in Canada and USA. Exports of Ontario cherries to the USA is limited, but BC exports over $35 million in cherries. There are now phytosanitary requirements. Impact to IPM is undetermined. Similar biology to cherry fruit fly and black cherry fruit fly, but possibly attack earlier, in green and yellow fruit. Damage may be confused with spotted wing drosophila.
European corn borer
Order Lepidoptera, family Crambidae. A pest of corn in Austria.
A source of European agricultural information.
Order Hemiptera, family Pentatomidae. Parasitized by Trissolcus thyantae.
Order Hymenoptera, family Platygastridae. A dominant parasitoid species in Europe. Targets orange wheat blossom. Released in the late 1980s.
A measure of the differences in abundance between species. Takes abundance and richness into account. Important for ecosystem health. A diversity index.
E = H / (ln S)
H = Shannon diversity index
S = number of species
Order Lepidoptera, family Noctuidae. Causes damage in South Africa where it is one of many invasive pests that plague the country.
A challenge in implementing IPM in developing countries. In developed countries large monocropped fields that are efficient to plow, plant, irrigate, and spray with machines are common. In developing countries, subsistence agriculture and small, heterogeneous farms are common. Most farms are less than a hectare. There is more structural diversity in crops, making management tricky. There’s no way to take advantage of economics of scale, and no standard “package” of IPM solutions for all farmers in a region; every situation is unique.
Farmer field school (FFS)
A system of disseminating IPM technology in Indonesia. Master trainers train field scouts, who train farmers. Master trainers have intensive training in colleges and universities. Field scouts are employees of the Ministry of Agriculture, with rigorous theoretical and practical training on basics of IPM. Guides organize FFS for one planting season, teaching what they learned. Training needs assessments are done for each area beforehand. Experienced-based training helps participants adopt knowledge and technology.
Federal Forest Office (BFW)
A federal government agency of Austria. Uses scientific research, consulting, and laboratory testing from the Austrian Research Centre for Forests. Responsible for import control of timber, bark brush wood, and forest reproductive material. Must adhere to BMLFUK plant protection legislation.
Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment, and Water Management (BMLFUK)
A federal government agency of Austria. Uses scientific research and consulting from AGES and the Austrian Research Centre for Forests. Responsible for plant protection legislation which affects BAES, BFW, and federal state government and plant protection services. Responsible for all exports from the country.
Defined by FAO as “when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet both dietary needs and food preferences, allowing them to lead active and healthy lives”. Developing countries are generally food-insecure, due to poverty and lack of technological development; they carry out subsistence farming to alleviate food insecurity. In developed countries food insecurity more often occurs in urban centres.
Order Diptera, family Chloropidae. A pest of corn in Austria.
Early detection can save yield, and in some cases save the crop.
Order Diptera. A pest of ornamentals. Can be controlled with Steinernema feltiae.
A parasitoid with a broad host range, with hosts in several orders.
Found in citronella and geranium. It is moderately repellent.
A plant essential oil that is a repellent. It is 34% citronellol, 16% geraniol, 9% citronelll formate, 7% isomenthone, and 5% linalool.
Giant silk moth
Order Lepidoptera, family Saturniidae. An ecologically and aesthetically important family. A non-target host of Compsilura concinnata. Several species declined due to this parasitoid, giving a bad reputation to biological control.
Advisor is Cynthia Scott-Dupree. Did work on solitary bees, non-target effects, and risk assessment.
Grape leaf louse
Order Hemiptera, family Phylloxeroidea. A pest of grapes in Austria.
Green stink bug
Order Hemiptera, family Pentatomidae. Parasitized by Trissolcus euschistii and T. brochymenae.
A highly destructive greenhouse pest.
In Canada, all greenhouse vegetables are grown for fresh consumption, so tolerance of pest damage is very low. Often uses rockwool substrate or hydroponics.
There are many parasitoids per host, usually all laid by the same female.
A group of organisms that exploit the same resources in a similar manner. Used when there are unknown species, or when it is more meaningful. Can includes species with similar nesting preferences or diet specailization.
Lymantria dispar dispar
Order Lepidoptera, family Erebidae. Univoltine. Overwinters as eggs. Introduced to North America from Eurasia in 1869. Caused $800 million in damage to the forestry industry. From 1905 – 1911 there was foreign exploration of Europe for natural enemies, and release of several biocontrol agents. It is still a problem.
The first step of infection for entomopathogenic nematodes. The parasite and host must coincide in space and time. EPNs are soil organisms, not well adapted to aquatic environments or foliage surface. The soil buffers them against the extremes of the world above-ground.
A horticultural entomologist. Works for OMAFRA in Guelph. Used to be the graduate student of Prof. Scott-Dupree. Did a lot of work on monitoring and outreach for spotted wing drosophila.
A challenge in implementing IPM in developing countries. Diseases include malaria, dengue, yellow fever, HIV/AIDS, and childbirth complications. Developed countries see less of these diseases because of more temperate climates, and healthcare systems. With lack of basic healthcare in developing countries, specifically sub-Saharan Africa, sickness and mortality results in disjointed families, reduced workforce, and heavy reliance on healthy family or community members. IPM practices are labour intensive, and often abandoned in such a situation.
Blood-like substance found in insects.
A company that produces biopolymer flakes that contain plant essential oils. The flakes degrade and slowly release the oils.
An entomopathogenic nematode. Used to control root weevils in berries and cranberries, wood borer in ornamentals, mole cricket and scarabs in turf, and western corn rootworm. A cruiser. Kills lepidopteran and coleopteran insects in the tropics. Gives a reddish appearance to victims. Contains the bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens. Has a hermaphroditic first generation inside its insect host, which are observed shortly after initial infection, and are larger than infective juveniles. Prefers warm climates.
An entomopathogenic nematode. Used to control root weevil in ornamentals.
Order Coleoptera. A family of natural enemies to carrot rust fly.
Important for long term data to monitor changing biology and resistance development.
A marsh 50 km north of Toronto. Highway 400 goes through it. The “salad bowl” of Canada. 7,000 acres are contained within a dyke system, which controls water levels coming from Lake Simcoe. 2,900 hectares of drained and reclaimed marsh. There are 2,500 acres of surrounding marsh. Protected by 9 km of berms and dykes. Includes Keswick, Cookstown, Srebot, and Colbar. Intensively cutlivated with muck crops. Produces 3,631 acres of carrots and 2,717 acres of onions. Other crops include celery, lettuce, beets, parsnips, bok choy, pak choy, and nappa cabbage. Rotations are often poor, with only carrots, onions, and sometimes celery; growers cannot affort to grow lower value crops. From 1980 – 1998 the Ontario government extension implemented IPM with expertise from the University of Guelph. From 1998 – 2003, private companies implemented IPM, and from 2004 to present the MCRS implemented IPM. It has an organic muck soil. There are some concerns with runoff of fertilizers. There are efforts to conserve muck for future generations. IPM is highly adopted by growers, with no prophylactic sprays. It is a small, flat area, and there is usually always someone watching scouts. Fields are typically long and thin, and traps are placed in corners for easy access. Insects can be caught before crops are planted. Applied for funding to enhance newly constructed berms to support natural enemies of carrot insects as well as pollinators including bees and butterflies; there is support from Pollinator Partnerships, Syngenta, Bayer CropScience, Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority, King County, and Species at Risk Fund.
Order Hymenotpera, family Apidae. Economically important and well-known. Produce hive products including honey, beeswax, and propolis. Pollinate many crops including canola, blueberries, tomatoes, almonds, and apples. Especially good at pollination because their entire life is dependent on pollen and nectar. Pollination is valued at $20 billion US. Bee decline in the media is focused almoste exclusively on honey bees. Not native to North America, and do not contribute much to bee diveristy. Insecticide risk assessment is rigorously applied for certain pesticides, and risky formulations are not marketed. Very well established, with a wealth of literature. Produce their own wax for combs and pots. Colonies are at most 8,000 individuals, greater than other types of bees. Large colony size means they can take considerable losses without severe impact to the colony. Foraging range is 10 km. Lifespan depends on time of brith: individuals born in the spring or summer have reduced lifespan. Not fond of certain flowers such as cone-shaped flowers or flowers with tricking mechanisms, and can be side pollinators.
A type of immersion bath. A reduced-risk insecticide. Non-phytotoxic levels include 5 mL / L for 1 minute. Effective in controlling western flower thrip eggs in all life stages except eggs. A lower dose may be needed.
The third step of infection for entomopathogenic nematodes. An EPN can parasitize only one host, so it must assess before it commits. Infective juveniles can discriminate amongst hosts without making mistakes. Some hosts have morphology to defend against EPNs, such as sieve plates or spiracles, and peritrophic membrane lining the gut.
A method of detecting non-target effects of parasitoids. Fails to provide species-level identification of parasitoids. Inadequate for field studies where there are multiple related parasitoids that may attack the same host.
The second step of infection for entomopathogenic nematodes. Methods include cruiser, ambusher, and intermediate.
A method of detecting non-target effects of parastioids. Assumes laboratory rearing protocols are available, which may not always be the case. Measures host and parasitoid mortality; the proportion of collected samples that yield no information. Fails to capture complete information on interspecfic interactions.
The fourth step of infection for entomopathogenic nematodes. The EPN may produce anti-immune protein to defeat host immune systems, protecting itself from encapsulation.
A type of immersion bath. Non-phytotoxic levels include 35?C for 15 – 60 minutes, 39?C for 15 – 30 minutes, and 41?C for 5 – 15 minutes. Effective in controlling western flower thrip eggs in all life stages. Thrips become less susceptible to the treatment as they develop.
A parasite of a parasitoid. Can disrupt the next generation of parasitoids. Develops within the parasitoid, and enters the parasitoid’s host after it is already dead, mummifying it. When using host rearing, it emerges rather than the parasitoid.
A challange in implementing IPM in developing countries. Rates are high in some parts of the world. IPM is scientific, and requires the ability to read, write, and do simple mathematics.
A group 1B organophosphate pesticide. Can be used to control carrot weevil, but it has developed resistance. It is not good for human health, and has a 5 day re-entry period. It has been used for the last 20 years, and no longer works.
A physical control. Propagative plant cuttings often have international origin, and insects can “hitchhike” on cuttings. Most propagated plants in Ontario come from imported plant cuttings. Insecticide resistant insects and invasive species can enter the country this way. Insecticides are often applied to cuttings, but immersion baths permit growers to establish insect-free and insecticide residue-free cuttings, ensuring ongoing greenhouse biological control programs are not negatively effected. Includes hot water, insecticidal soap, and horticultural oil immersions.
In 1945 the government was set on achieving self-sufficiency in rice production, so they used Green Revolution agriculture to intensify production: seed technology, irrigation improvement, pesticides, fertilizrs, and improved marketing. Major pests invaded including stemborers, field rats, and rice gall midges. The government made pesticides readily available, so people applied them indiscriminately, leading to outbreak of brown planthopper; many rice producing areas had no harvest. In 1980, needed to convince farmers they would not suffer economic losses from switching away from pesticides. Farmers used calendar sprays. Needed a paradigm shift. Pesticide subsidies were eliminated in 1989. IPM was the only legal plant protection measure until 1998, when the country underwent social upheaval and government change. The new government caused a resurgence of pesticides, and return of brown planthopper.
Infective juvenile (IJ)
A stage of development in entomopathogenic nematodes. The only free-living stage in the soil, outside of the insect host. Only this stage carries the bacterial symbiont. It is stress-resistant, and can go into arrested development. This is the stage which is sold in formulations as a BCA.
Using DNA techniques to find out what parasitoid has killed a dead insect.
Inflict direct and indirect feeding damage, create wounds for entry of pathogens, vector plant diseases, and cause contamination and management costs.
A type of immersion bath. A reduced-risk insecticide. Non-phytotoxic levels include 5 – 40 mL / L for 1 minute. Effective in controlling western flower thrip adults at 40 mL / L for 1 minute.
Insidious pirate bug
Minute pirate bug
A predatory bug used as a BCA against western flower thrip. Can be negatively impacted by insecticides. A generalist polyphagous predator that feeds on all stages of thrips, aphids, whiteflies, mites, lepidopteran eggs, pollen, and plant sap. It has five nymphal instars. One bug can eat 11.5 – 12.1 thrips each day, but it kills more prey than it consumes in high thrip density. It holds its prey in place with front legs and uses its rostrum to inject digestive enzymes, then sucks out the body contents of its prey through the rostrum. Found to feed on the larvae of spotted wing drosophila.
Integrated pest management (IPM)
Protects crops in a manner that is environmentally and economically sustainable. Includes all available methods: cultural, biological, chemical, genetic, and physical controls. Strateges include crop rotation, sanitation, site selection, timing of planting and harvesting, natural biocontrols or beneficial insects, and tillage. Non-chemical controls augment efficacy of chemical controls in an effort to reduce their usage. Program improvements may include aerial photography and evaluation of carrot insect monitoring methods. Considers insects and pathogens. Defined by Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations as “The careful consideration of all available pest control techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of pest populations and keep pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce or minimize risk to human health and the environment. Emphasises the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agroecosystems and encourages natural pest control mechanisms.”
Entomopathogenic nematodes which have aspects of cruisers and ambushers. Includes Steinernema feltiae. Cruiser characteristics include moderate chemoreception, or directional response to host cues, and an inability to nictate. Ambusher characteristics inlude minimal distance travelled on rough substrates, and inability to locate distant hosts. Found in the upper soil stratum, 0 – 3″. Suitable for controlling soil-dwelling life stages of pests, such as fungus fnats and mushroom fly larvae.
1888 – 1955
The second stage of biological control. There were more discriminating biological control egents involved in movement of natural enemies. In 1919 USDA established a laboratory in France to look for European biocontrol agents. There was a drop in activity during WWII, when there were cheap synthetic insecticides. There was little concern for non-target effects, with most resources put into foreign exploiration of natural enemies. Few resources were invested in assessing efficacy and host specificity. There was a “more is better” approach. Success was not guaranteed, and many projects failed, with serious long-term ecological consequences that have jaded perception of the efficacy and safety of biological control.
International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC)
Established in 1955. Promotes the development of biological control. Collects, evaluates, and disseminates information on biological control. Arranges and sponsors conferences, meetings, and symposia.
A method of control of tarnished plant bug in strawberry. Before fruits emerge, the bugs accumulate in alfalfa. Extrafloral nectaries attract parasitoids. Conduct sweeps and surveys on bug density and parasitism. Spray alfalfa strips if necessary. Used in southwestern Ontario in 2007, combined with release of parasitoids.
Indirect and non-target effects of biological control. Includes primary and secondary parasitoids. Can be detected with rearing and molecular analysis of non-mummified aphids.
A cause of pest damage in developing countries. Many developing countries have porous borders, and goods flow more freely back and forth, potentially carrying invasive species.
IPM in developing countries
It may be a solution to food insecurity, or it may be a dangerous ideal. Challenges in implementing it include farm structure, information and technology, lack of access to education and training (for basic premises such as growing healthy crops), illiteracy, safety precautions, subsidies, institutional challenges, collective action, and healthare. Many principles are counter-intuitive for growers, for example that indirect pests do not cause damage at low levels. Economic thresholds can be difficult to implement. Extremely difficult to collect information needed for IPM.
Occurs from May to September, twice a week from May to August, and once per week in September in carrots and celery. Can be perormed by two full-time scouts and one part-time scout. Need to scout rain or shine, except for in celery when fields are too wet. Reports are filled for each visit, including insect counts, diseases, and disorders. Reports are delivered to the grower’s barn or office on the same day, and most growers talk with scouts daily. Growers and scout relationship is important: trust is earned, and communication is key, for pesticide use (restricted entry intervals) and issues in the field and surrounding area. Scouts are usually university students.
Includes agriphones and agrifaxes. Sent bi-weekly from May to September. Sent to a mailing list that includes growers, extension personnel, researchers, and industry representatives. Contains: weather information including temperature, precipitation, and soil temperature; insect and disease pressure; registered products for current issues; control recommendations; insect degree day accumulations; disease forecasting; upcoming events; and new product registrations.
Did work on conservation of natural enemies.
A graduate student of Rebecca Hallett. Working on models for swede midge. Did work on IPM for food security and the challenges of implementing IPM in developing countries.
Order Hymenoptera, family Ampulicidae. A parasitoid of cockroaches. The adult female paralyzes a cockroach with a sting to the thorax, then impairs its ability to initiate movement with a sting to the brain. She then leads the cockroach to her nest, by pulling its antenna. She then lays an egg on the cockroach and seals it within a nest. The cockroach doesn’t die until larvae emerge. Hatched larvae feed on the cockroach for days before pupating within its abdomen.
From the University of Florida.
An allelochemical which benefits the receiver organism. Includes feeding attractants produced by plants. Includes cucurbitacin and the smell of rotting fruit.
When there is a well-characterized system, with a candidate agent selected. Biological control agents have ecological host range with direct non-target effects, and disruptive interspecific interactions between parasitoids with indirect non-target effects.
Provide resources for natural enemies. Includes flowers, shelter, alternate prey, and supplementary food. Increases longevity and nutrient levels for predators and parasitoids. Ecosystem services provide biodiversity conservation, erosion regulation, and aesthetic value. Produces a more balanced, less disturbed agroecosystem, with less large-scale monoculture and the establishment of natural enemies.
A group 1A insecticide registered for control of brown marmorated stink bug. Provides control. One application works for 8 days.
Order Hemiptera, family Miridae. A non-target host of Peristenus, preyed on mostly by P. pallipes.
Order Thysanoptera, family Thripidae. A pest of cereals in Austria.
Linear particle accelerator
A highly precise dose delivery system for irradiating males in sterile insect technique. Also used for pet cancer treatments, at doses 40 times lower.
A trap used to capture pine beetles including mountain pine beetle. Widely used in forestry. It looks like a tree trunk, attracting the beetles, which get trapped in the funnels, collecting in a cup. The funnels fold up when not in use.
Order Hemiptera, family Miridae. A non-target host of Peristenus, preyed on mostly by P. pallipes.
Order Hemiptera, family Miridae. An ecological equivalent of tarnished plant bug, found in Europe. Attacked by several mutlivoltine parasitoids, for well-synchronized control that prevents outbreaks, and keeps damage below an economic threshold. There is interest in introducing its parastioids to North America, for neoclassical biological control of tarnished plant bug.
Order Hymenoptera, family Braconidae. A parasitoid of aphids that was released in Hawaii and was prevalent on Kauai until 10 years ago, when Aphidius colemani was released. Thought to have competitioin with A. colemani, but was competition was actually mediated by generalist hyperparsitoids.
Order Hymenoptera, family Pteromalidae. A dominant parasitoid species in Europe. Targets orange wheat blossom midge. Introduced along with this pest. Has 30 – 80% parasitism.
A group 1B insecticide. Conditionally registered for control of brown marmorated stink bug until 2016, providing suppression. Can control spotted wing drosophila. Includes Malathion 85E and Malathion 25W.
There was a terrible drought and famine. People deforested the land for firewood for cooking and making charcoal, even though it was illegal. The government planted trees, but no one took care of them afterwards.
Did work on sterile insect technique.
A use of sex pheromones. Attracts and kills pests. Usually males are attracted, but when females are attracted it is more efficient. If each male mates with 10 females, to see signfiicant reduction would require 90% of males. The same traps used for monitoring are used, but with a higher density. Traps may not be efficient enough, or become quickly saturated with pests.
A group 3A pyrethroid pesticide. Can be used to control carrot weevil. It doesn’t work.
A use of sex pheromone. Males use gradients of sex pheromones to locate females, zig-zagging along the scent trail. Release of sex pheromones into the environment destroys this, and confuses the male, disrupting mating. Has had great success in IPM. Synthetic pheromones for 250 species are used: 80% lepidopterans, 10% coleopterans, including oriental fruit moth, codling moth, and pinworm. Mechanisms include covering up natural pheromone scent of females, misdirection of males with multiple sources of pheromones, and habituation by desensitizing male antenna receptors through constant exposure. Works best over large areas over 10 acres, in square or rectangular blocks (minimizing borders). Needs to be employed area-wide, or pests will simply mate in areas where it isn’t used. Doesn’t work when pest numbers are too high. Often used in combination with insecticides. Includes sprayable products, encapsulated in microscopic polymer capsules with slow release over 2 – 3 weeks. New more efficient formulas are being investigated.
Order Coleoptera, family Scarabaeidae. A pest of grapes in Austria.
It is found in peppermint. It is moderately repellent.
Order Mermithidae, family Mermithidae. A parasitic nematode. Associated with arthropods. 25 species attack mosquitoes. Used as biological control agents. Larger than entomopathogenic nematodes, and can be seen within the host’s body.
A parasitic protozoan. Used to control grasshoppers. Infected females lay fewer eggs, and hatching is reduced. 50% of grasshoppers are infected and die before reaching adult stage. Applied as powder of spores, which the grasshoppers eat. Reproduces in fat bodies in the host, causing them to become sluggish and eat less. Has long-term impact.
Mixed Wood Plains (MWP)
A region of Canada that is rich in bee species, in southern Ontario and Quebec.
1956 – present
The latest stage of biological control. Interest in ecology and understanding of biological control as a core component of IPM. In 1983, concerns raised regarding introductions of biological control agents and possible extinction of native secies. There are legislative guidelines and research into non-target effects of BCAs. In the 1980s, non-target effects became a hot topic. In the mid-1990s, it became a requirement to have host specificity testing, as an integral part of classical biological control programs. Strict regulations govern the import and release of candidate biological control agents in most countries. Target and non-target host range testing in the field (ecological host range) and the laboratory (physiological host range). Molecular tools are integrated including DNA sequencing and barcoding, and molecular diagnostics using species-specific markers. Canada, Australia, and New Zealand are world leaders in non-target assessment of biological control agents.
Order Orthoptera, family Gryllotalpidae. A pest of turf. Can be controlled with Steinernema riobravis, S. scapterisci, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.
A use for sex pheromones. Pheromone traps can detect pests even at low densities. Important for determining economic thresholds. Inexpensive.
Mountain pine beetle
Order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae. Aggregation pheromones cis– and trans-verbenol attract males to traps around an area that needs to be protected, for early detection. Lindgren traps are used in parks, private property, sawmills, and seed cone orchards.
Muck Crops Research Station (MCRS)
Has implemented IPM in the Holland Marsh since 2004. Objectives are: grower field scouting; disease and insect forecasting; identification and diagnosis of diseases, insects, and weeds; providing growers with timely, accurate, and convenient access to insect and disease information; and updating and improving IPM programs. Funded by “soft money” from project grants (CAAP), agrochemical company sponsorships, and participating growers; staff and programming is not guaranteed. The diagnostic lab receives over 200 submissions a year: 80% are disease or insect damage, and 20% are abiotic disorders such as nutrient deficiencies. Identifies insects and pathogens, using spores or isolation and plating. Provides inoculum for research trials.
Good soils for growing onions, carrots, celery lettuce, bok choy, pak choy, and nappa cabbage. Developed in wetlands where plant material collects underwater, in an anaerobic environment. Muck soil is over 30% organic matter, up to 70%, and over 40 cm deep. Has a high moisture holding capacity, but is low in micronutrients. When it is first drained, it can be over 97% organic matter, with a very low pH; the organic matter undergoes subsistence. It is also susceptible to wind and water erosion, and is often lost. Found in the Holland Marsh. It is very dark in colour, but not necessarily fertile.
An organism that uses the pest as a resource, for food or reproduction. Includes fungi, bacteria, viruses, parasites, and insect parasitoids and predators. Induce behavioural changes in the pest.
A control with no treatment. Shows what the background mortality is.
Phylum Nematoda. Invertebrates vermiform, unsegmented bodies with bilateral symmetry. Pseudocoelomates: the body has three layers and a pseudocelom. 0.1 – 2.5 mm in legnth. There are 25,000 described species, and over 500,000 estimated species. They are ubiquitous as parasites of plants, animals, and insects (obligate and lethal), as well as predaceous and free-living forms that can be much larger in size. Free living forms can be up to 8 m long (a whale gut parasite). The study of nematodes is under-researched, and there is only one nematologist in Canada. Can live in the soil for 20 years.
Neoclassical biological control
Importation and release of a natural enemy to a new area where it doesn’t naturally enemy to a new area where it doesn’t naturally ocur, to control a native pest. Single or multiple releases, intending to establish and provide long-term control. Similar to classical control, but for a native pest. Used when no effective natural enemies associate with the pest, or there is poor synchronization of pest and natural enemy life cycle. A congeneric species somewhere is successfully suppressed by natural enemies. Risks include non-target effects.
Have chronic exposure to bees. A lot of risk assessment has been done for honey bees.
New insect pests
Lack available control options. Impact existing IPM programs and cause additional management costs. May require plant quarantine and loss of markets. Cause economic losses, environmental impacts, to biodiversity, and social impacts.
An activity practiced by ambusher entomopathogenic nematodes. The nematode stands up on its tail, elevating its body freely up in the air. It is reaching out to feel any hosts which might pass by.
Order Lepidoptera, family Noctuidae. Larvae are cutworms. A pest of carrots.
Pollination is valued at $10 billion US, but perform half of pollination. There have been large losses which are bad for the environment. Many initiatives for reducing bee decline do not support native bees. Includes a broad range of species important for crops: bumblebees, stingless bees, and solitary bees. There are no specific protocols, only extrapolation from honey bee data, with safety factors applied. Historically this can be good enough, but sometimes that is not the case. Current international colaboration is focused on risk assessment protocols for bumblebees in North America and Europe. Can be smaller than honey bees, exposed to a higher ratio of pesticides on surface are to volume of organs. Can have different metabolisms than honey bees, and different levels of hairiness to keep pesticides off. Most collect their own nesting materials, which may be contaminated with pesticides. Sometimes they are not in their nests at night or in the morning, when sprays occur to protect honey bees. Risk assessment is more precise for ecological protection. Has a smaller foraging range, a few hundred meters, making them good for field and semi-field trials, with less variation. Readily available for testing most of the year. High cost of produing protocols and regulatory framework for risk assessment, and species must be identified for each region. There is potential to be inaccurate due to wide diversity of bees. There is a long way to go before they are fully implemented.
A risk of importing biological control agents. It may attack another organism other than its target. These could include rare, endangered, or endemic species, beneficial organisms such as pollinators or natural enemies, or species with cultural or aesthetic importance. It is important to know the full host range of an agent before releasing it.
Supplies all medically used X-ray isotopes. In a partnership with Bruce Power to produce sterile insect technique for pepper weevil.
Order Coleoptera, family Carabidae. Abundance was 8.5% in 2015.
Onion downy mildew
It is similar to late blight, but in onions. Downcast is a disease forecasting program for it. Once you see symptoms, it is too late.
Order Thysanoptera, family Thripidae. A pest of vegetables in Austria.
Produced 90% on muck soil. As a monocot it is often rotated with the dicot carrots.
Orange wheat blossom midge
Order Diptera, family Cecidomyiidae. Native to Europe, but its distribution include North America, Russia, and China, Reported in Quebec in 1828, in western Canada in 1901, and in the Pacific Northwest in 1945. A major outbreak occurred in northeastern Saskatchewan in 1983, causing $30 million in crop losses in spring wheat. Biological, ecological, and agronomic studies began in 1984. Use of biological control reduces pesticide applications, saving farmers money, around $10 – 30 milion per year, from 1991 to 2001. There are 27 parasitoid species in Europe, including Macroglenes penetrans, Platygaster, and Euxestonotus error.
Order Hymenoptera, family Megachilidae. A managed solitary bee. Studied for economic reasons. Collects soil to build its nest.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Responsible for interantional protocols and some level of consistency in policy. Protocols are pretty well adhered to.
Oriental fruit moth
Order Lepidoptera, family Tortricidae. Can be controlled using mating disruption. There are twist-tie and clip type products.
Order Hymenoptpera, family Pteromalidae. A hyperparasitoid of aphids in Hawaii.
Thirty plastic bowls with alternating colours are placed 1 – 3 m apart, placed out late April – September. Placed in bee habitat, near flowers or nesting sites. Filled with water and a few drops of clear, unscented, biodegradable dish soap. Bugs get stuck in the soap and sink to the bottom. Samples are preserved in ethanol, and pinned and labelled. Insects are identified using morphological keys, DNA barcoding, or specialist taxonomists. Simple, fast, cheap, and materials are easy to find. It takes 10 minutes to train someone how to collect and refill the traps. Passive; the traps are left alone. Traps can be spilled by animals, people, and wind. Colours are yellow, blue, and white, because many bees have peaks in visual absorption at yellow, blue, and UV. There are no standard pan colours; other studies could use slightly different wavelengths. Yellow catches the most insects, and white catches the least. Low specificity, and low probability of catching a specific species. Traps may need to be mounted on wooden poles in areas with tall grass.
An organism that lives in or on another organism, benefiting by deriving nutrients at the host’s expense. Tend to weaken and kill the host slowly. Not effective as biocontrol agents, and can be costly to mass produce. Enter by ingestion or penetration of the cuticle. Usually infects in its juvenile stage when it is free-living, and develops into an adult within the host. It uses the host as a factory to produce offspring, with the adult stage is within the hots and eggs or juveniles being shed into the environment. Doesn’t always kill its host, but decreases fitness by sterilizing or debilitating the host. Includes microsporidia, mermithid nematodes, entomopathogenic nematodes, and tapeworms.
An organism that lives on or in another organism, at the expense of that organism. Egg and larvae stages develop within the host, and the adult is free-living. Adults find or accept a host. Immature stages kill the host in order to develop. Does not reproduce within the host. A fairly intimate interaction between host and parasitoid; it must evade host immune response, avoiding melanisation and encapsulation. Tend to be specialized in their host; narrow host range. The host and parasitoid have co-evolved over time, with the parasitoid one step ahead of the host. Three orders of insects: Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera. Includes parasiotid wasps. Concept was developed in 1706. Darwin discussed its use to control cabbage caterpillars in the 1800s. German scientists suggested mass rearing and release in 1827. Trichogramma was shipped from USA to Canada to control lepidopteran pests in 1882. The first interncontinential shipment was in 1883, from UK to USA for control of cabbageworm. Can be solitary or gregarious, and ectoparasitic or endoparasitic. Imposes little or no damage to the crop, with minimal loss, keeping populations below economic threshold. Potentially increases crop yields.
Parasitoid risk assessment
Assessment of the risk associated with the release of an exotic parasitoid. A critical step in classial biological control programs. Requires methodology to detect a non-target effect, including host dissection and rearing. DNA-based techniques are well suited to the identification of parastioids and detection of species interactions. Get information on the baseline of native species which attack the pest, in case exotic biocontrol agents are released. Predicts potential direct and indirect non-target effects on native species and parasitoids.
A source of IPM program funding at MCRS. Participating growers must pay $50/acre. This is about as much as an expensive fungicide.
Order Hemiptera, family Aphididae. An aphid found in Kauai in Hawaii. Parasitized by three parasitoids and two hyperparaistoids.
Pepper weevil (PW)
Order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae. A developing situation in Ontario. A severe pest of sweet and hot peppers in the southern USA, Mexico, and Central America. Subtropical: does not overwinter in Ontario in normal conditions. Found in BC in 1992 and in Ontario in 2010, in pepper greenhouses. Risks of pepper imports and co-mingling. Not a regulated pest in Canada or most USA states (except New Mexico). Adults are long-lived, with overlapping generations: there is no diapause. A mobile pest, good hitchhiker with rapid development time, taking 2 weeks to develop in optimal conditions. Access to food sources in protected areas allows them to overwinter; this is a community problem. Often hide during greenhouse cleanings, and can survive for a long time without food. There was an infestation with insufficient management in some operations in the fall and winter of 2015 – 2016. Spread from greenhouses to fields; there was insufficient communication betwen growers. Significant nummbers in greenhouses in 2016, with multiple countries affected. Infested pepper fields later in the season. Reproduces on peppers, nightshade, and eggplant. Prefers young plants. Feeds and survives on tomatoes and other Solanaceae plants/weeds. The female oviposits on the fruit and larvae enter and are protected inside, where they pupate. Causes similar damage as codling moth. Intensive monitoring and scouting has high additional costs which may not be sustainable.
Pepper weevil control
Keep all imported products separated from domestic during packaging, with a physical barrier. Imported produce should be received and sorted away from any production greenhouse or pepper field. Biosecurity plans to prevent spread betwen farms. Exclusion screening on greenhouse facilities. Early detection and response is necessary for chemical controls. Requires education of employees. Manage Solanaceae weeds. Don’t let weeds or plant debris sit near the greenhouse. Remove all culls. Greenhouse growers must send all organic waste to regional landfills for burial over 30 cm deep. Clean out the greenhouse or mow field residues after harvest. Maintain greenhouse temperature over 27?C for 7 – 10 days afer removing all plant matter. Future strategies may include biological control with native or introduced natural enemies. Potential BCAs are Triaspis eugenii and Urosigalphus. There are attempts by a collaboration with Bruce Power and Nordion to produce sterile insect technique.
Pepper weevil identification
2.0 – 3.5 mm in length, 1.5 – 1.8 mm wide. The body is strongly arched, and it has a long, stout beak. The thorax and elytra are mostly covered with small scales. It is mahogany to nearly black in colour. There is a spur on the underside of the femur on all 6 legs.
A plant essential oil with an extended persistent repellency. Did not reduce oviposition on fruit, but may have effect when close to the berry, 2 cm. It is 45% methanol and 14% menthone. The most promising oil as a repellent. It was active for 6 days.
Order Hymenoptera, family Braconidae. Includes P. digoneutis, P. relictus, and P. pallipes, which were considered for release to control tarnished plant bug. This requires ecological host range data. There was a large study involving collection of non-target hosts across a broad geographic range in Europe, near Germany: 20,000 specimens of 18 species, half reared and half multiplexed for PCR and molecular analysis. Focused on 3 non-target species.
Order Hymenoptera, family Braconidae. A parasitoid of tarnished plant bug. It oviposits into the bug as it is feeding. It was considered for release in Canada in the early 2000s, for control in alfalfa, red clover, strawberry, and canola. It attacked the target host most specifically. It was successfully introduced and established in the USA. It was released from 2000 – 2005 near London, Ontario, and became established in 2005. There was additional release in strawberry fields up until 2008, with aroudn 15,000 parasitoids released.
Order Hymenoptera, family Braconidae. Considered for release to control tarnished plant bug. It has a broad host range and is widespread. Caused high levels of pupal mortality.
Order Hymenoptera, family Braconidae. A parasitoid of tarnished plant bug. It oviposits into the bug as it is feeding. It was considered for release in Canada in the early 2000s, for control in alfalfa, red clover, and strawberry. It was successfully introduced and established in the USA.
A problem faced in developing countries. Crop losses to pests are 40 – 50% in developing countries, and 20 – 30% in developed countries. Damage is caused by invasive insects, climate change, and outbreaks from pesticide overuse.
Semiochemicals which elicit an intraspecific response. Released by one individual, resulting in a behavioural response in individuals of the same species. Includes alarm, sex, aggregation, epidiectic, and trail-marking pheromones.
The bacteria which live in a symbiotic relationship with the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Can luminesce under specific lighting conditions.
Plant essential oils
A host volatile that can be used as a pull strategy. In an experiment it was found that geranium, peppermint, citronella, and thyme oils had repellent qualities. It is a blend of compounds. In 10 mg, each % is equal to 0.1 mg. Can be dispersed in the field in 10% biopolymer flakes.
Order Hymenoptera, family Platygastridae. A dominant genus of parasitoids in Europe. Targets orange wheat blossom midge. Released in the late 1980s.
There are 32 crops in Ontario that require insect pollination. Success is linked to wild bee abundance. There is a positive relationship between crop yields and pollinator species richness. Pollinators should be considered in IPM programs, and they are part of healthy agroecosystems. Shift management strategies to encompass wild bees. Without pollinators, there would be manual pollination.
A problem faced in developing countries. Can come in many forms. Includes pesticides, industrial runoff, litter, and dumping of dangerous chemical compounds due to insufficient waste disposal infrastructure.
A problem faced in developing countries. Most of the world’s population growth is in devloping countries, where people often have large families. More people need to share the same amount of land.
Makes sure the experiment works by killing the expected number of subjects. Test subjects are given something that is known to kill them.
A region of Canada that is rich in bee species. Includes southern Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.
An organism which attacks and consumes prey. Has biting/chewing or piercing/sucking mouthparts. Often fairly generalist in prey selection. Ant nests were used in the 3rd century in China to control citrus pests, and in Yemen for date pests. Ladybird beetles were used to control aphids in 1200 AD. Lacewings were used to control aphids in greenhouses in 1734.
Preliminary efforts 200 AD – 1887
The earliest stage of biological control. Living agents were released haphazardly for biological control, with no scientific approach.
The fluid-filled cavity of a nematode, which gives it shape.
Order Coleoptera, family Carabidae. Abundance was 24.2% in 2015, and 13.0% in 2016.
A combination of behaviour-modifying stimuli to manipulate distribution and abundance of pests for pest management. Push strategies include visual distractions, non-host volatiles, anti-aggregation pheromones, alarm pheromones, oviposition deterrents, antifeedants, and plant essential oils. Pull strategies include visual stimulants, host volatiles, aggregation pheromones, sex pheromones, oviposition stimulants, and gustatory stimulants. “Attract and kill”.
Bugs are attracted by pheromone, and fly up into a funnel and get trapped in a container. A mesh-covered hole is in the side of the container to allow more pheromone to get out.
A group 3 insecticide. Can control spotted wing drosophila. Includes Pyganic.
A plot of species rank vs. relative abundance. Shows that not all species are equally common. Rank 1 indicates that it is the most abundant species, and higher numbers are less abundant.
Rape stem weevil
Order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae. A pest of Brassicaceae crops including rape and cabbage in Austria. Oviposits into the stem of the plant. Larvae feed inside, causing the stem to bend and burst open. Can lead to secondary infections. Monitored with yellow pan traps, and warning services. Chemical control occurs before oviposition, with pyrethroids. Action threshold is 10 weevils/trap in 3 days from February – April.
Deals with unequal sample sizes. Pairs down the larger number to be able to compare it with the smaller number. Some information is lost.
Rebecca H. Hallett
Did a masters at Simon Fraser University. Has been working in spotted wing drosophila ever since it was discovered in Ontario.
The organism which senses semiochemicals. It is the insect pest.
The percentage that each species contributes to the total number of individuals in an area.
Rice gall midge
Order Diptera, family Cecidomyiidae. A pest in Indonesia that was targeted in 1945.
A group 15 benzoylurea pesticide. Can be used to control carrot weevil. Reduces damage only. It was registered in 2016.
Requires a thorough understanding of systems and organisms involved, inluding historical traits and basic toxicological responses. There is more of a focus on risk assessment for honey bees rather than on-Apis bees.
Order Coleoptera. A pest of berries, citrus, cranberries, and ornamentals. Can be controlled with Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. megidis, Steinernema riobravis, and S. carpocapsae.
A challenge in implementing IPM in developing countries. In developed countries there is WHMS and people are safety-conscious. In developing countries this is less so, and people will often apply pesticides without proper safety precautions.
Salt water test
A method of detecting spotted wing drosophila larvae. Fruits are crushed into a pulp and then submerged in saltwater. Larvae, if present, will float to the surface.
The soil type which is optiemal for movement of entomopathogenic nematodes. Common in Ontario.
Order Coleoptera, family Scarbaeidea. A pest of turf. Can be controlled with Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.
Order Hymenoptera. A family of egg parasitoids of brown marmorated stink bug. Issues in host range studies, because it destroys the developing bug; need to identify host based on egg morphology, which is difficult and inaccurate. Identifying parasitoid morphologically is only possible by rearing infested eggs. Molecular tools can be used to facilitate discovery of species interactions, capable of identifying parasitoid and stink bug. It is impossible to identify parasitoids with molecular tools from the empty egg shells from which they emerged. Includes Telenomus and Trissolcus. Some species are not yet in DNA barcode databases.
A lure that attracts spotted wing drosophila better than other attractants. Detected the first SWD at 5 of the 6 field sites, and captured the most per trap per week in both crops with relatively high selectivity. Attracts low numbers of sap beetles. The most promising lure as an attractant.
Order Diptera, family Sciaridae. A pest of mushrooms. Can be controlled with Steinernema feltiae.
Order Diptera, family Calliphoridae. The first insect successfully controlled with sterile insect technique, on an island in the 1950s.
Elicit an olfactory based behavioural response for pest control. The most effective control involves manipulation of pest chemosensory sensitivity. Chemicals which act as stimuli and mediate interactions among organisms. The chemical is emitted by the source, and received by the receiver. Non-toxic. Includes pheromones and allelochemicals.
A pheromone which is released by either or both sexes, but mosty by females. Attracts mates. Very potent over long distances. Species-specific. In lepidopterans they are simple molecules that are stable and easy to synthesize. Used in pest management for monitoring, mass trapping, and mating distruption. When produced by females to attract males it is a poor means of reducing pest populations.
Shannon diversity index (H)
A widely used diversity index. Assumes that individuals are randomly sampled from an indefinitely large population, and that all species are represented in a sample. Value is usually 3.5 – 4.5. The higher the value, the greater the diversity.
H = – ?S(i = 1) pi ln pi
S = number of species
pi = proportion of total samples belonging to the ith species.
Order Hemiptera, family Scutelleridae. A pest of cereals in Austria.
When a honey bee chews through the side of the flower to get nectar, and doesn’t pollinate the flower. Can occur with some flowers that bees do not like.
Silver leaf whitefly
Order Hemiptera, family Aleyrodidae. Can be controlled with hot water immersion baths; the hotter the better.
An allelochemical which benefits both source and receiver organisms. Includes floral scents which attract bees and other pollinators. Evokes a response in the receiver that is beneficial to the source and receiver. Mediates mutualism. Not used in IPM.
A group of non-Apis bees. Includes alfalfa leafcutter bee, alkali bee, orchard bee, squash bee, and more than 4,000 wild species in US and Canada. Importance is becoming realized. Have an obligate diapause. Specialize with specific plants, synchronizing life cycle with its host species. Able to live in deserts where there may be long pauses between resource availability. Research is limited to individual lab groups, usually focused on management of specific species. Do not form colonies, and do not have workers; each bee is independent. Losing 50% of individuals in a field could be devastating to a species.
There is one parasitoid per host.
The organism which produces semiochemicals. Can be a plant or another insect.
A parasitoid with a narrow host range of one species.
Species area curve
A plot of area sampled vs. number of species. Shape is influenced by geographical area and sampling efforts. Depends greatly on sample size.
The total number of species present in a given area. A diversity index.
A DNA-based technique. Finds unique areas of DNA sequences for species of interest. Requires design of species-specific PR primers to amplify specific segments. Identifies unknown or unidentified species of host and parasitoid, based on length of fragments.
Spined soldier bug
Order Hemiptera, family Pentatomidae. Parasitized by Trissolcus euschistii.
A group 5 insecticide. Can control spotted wing drosophila. Includes Delegate WG.
A group 5 insecticide. Can control spotted wing drosophila. Includes Entrus.80.W. Immersion baths are not effective against western flower thrip. Thrips have high levels of resistance.
Respiratory openings in the thorax.
A rotorod spore trap is placed in three areas of a field, and collected three times a week. Visually assessed for spores with a compound microscope, which are identified and counted. Provides early warning detection.
Spotted wing drosophila (SWD)
Cherry vinegar fly
Order Diptera, family Drosophilidae. A vinegar fly, related to the common fruit fly. Has adaptations which make it unique. A direct pest of a wide range of soft-skinned and stone fruits. Hosts include: strawberries, blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, elderberries, mulberries, cherries, peaches, plums, apricots, grapes, persimmons, apples, nectarines, pears, and plums. Wild hosts include buckthorn, dogwood, brambles, nightshade, honeysuckle, black elder, pokeweed, and pin cherry. Can sometimes oviposit in cracked or damaged tomatoes or oranges, or flowers, in the absence of ideal hosts. It appears first in wild hosts. Very invasive and opportunistic. It is associated with the smell of rotting fruit. Feeds on wild fruit early in the season, and becomes established. Oviposits in intact, unripe, healthy fruit prior to harvest, causing damage that makes fruit unmarketable, and can lead to entry of pathogens and secondary pests. Has a serrated ovipositor which is not found in other fruit flies. Damage can go unrecognized, mistaken for old, bruised, overheated, or overripe fruit. Eggs hatch in 2 hours to 3 days. There are three larval instars, and it pupates in 3 – 13 days, and emerges 3 – 15 days later as adults which can live up to 59 days. Average total lifespan is 86 days. One generation takes 8 – 10 days at 25?C, and 21 – 25 days at 15?C. Can double population in 4 days. Overwinter in hoop houses and other protected areas. A female can produce 630 offspring. Populations peak in late summer and early fall. Activity is decreased outside of the range of 10 – 30?C. Can complete 3 – 9 generations on one season. A pest of fruits in Austria.
Spotted wing drosophila control
Minimize favourable habitat within the field, managing canopy and moisture. Harvest fruits early, thoroughly, and often. Spray during ripening fruit, when threshold is still under development and flies are active. Have post-harvest cooling. Spray programs often also manage European cherry fruit fly. Netting can help in some situations. Use a push-pull strategy. Control wild hosts. Remove all dropped fruit. Cull soft fruit, and destroy culls. Manage crop canopy to improve spray coverage. Pick fruit frequently before susceptiblity: pick early, clean, and often. Keep equipment and processing areas free of old fruit. No known biological control: still researching. Potential BCAs include Braconidae and Cynipidae parasitoids, as well as Orius insidiosus. SWD is resistant to some larval parasitoids. Several inseciticde classes can control adults, and should be sprayed as soon as SWD is identified in a region, pre-harvest while fruit is ripe: malathion, cypermethrin, pyrethrins, spinosad, and spinetoram. Since it attacks ripe fruit, pre-harvest intervals must be short, and re-applications correctly timed. Resistance is documented; rotate insecticides. Consider bee toxicity, beneficial insects including two-spotted spider mite.
Spotted wing drosophila history
Native to East Asia, in Japan. First observed in 1916. Distributed in China and Korea by the 1930s. Moved into the Pacific in 1980, then worldwide in the 2000s. First detected in Ontario in November 2010 in a backyard in Niagara, by a CFIA survey using Contech traps. In early years they were blown up from USA, but quickly became established, moving northeast. First capture on a commercial farm was in August 2011; and 60% of sites (out of 60) had SWD by November of that year. In 2012 an OMAFRA survey with 110 sites used deli cup traps and captured SWD in June, and 90% of sites had SWD by November. It was found in 26 counties at 110 sites, as north as Timiskaming. Damage was not recognized as insect damage in 2012.
Spotted wing drosophila identification
2 – 3 mm, with reddish eyes and a gold/yellow body. Males have a single spot near the wing margin, and two rows of dark tarsal combs with 3 – 6 teeth on each of the front legs. Females have a large serrated ovipositor that protrudes from the body, which it uses to damage fruits. It has short stubby antennae, and unbroken bands at the edge of each abdominal segment. Easy to identify with a microscope.
Spotted wing drosophila monitoring
Used traps to know when flies are active and when pressure is increasing. Use cost-effective and sensitive trapping tools. A good trap has large screened holes for airflow, with 3 mm mesh, red markings, and is rainproof, sturdy, and easy to handle. The best traps were ones made from peanut butter jars. Bait includes apple cider vinegar, which may be combined with 10% ethanol, yeast, sugar, water, fermenting dough, or a commercial lure or bait. Baits should have good selectivity, from other Drosophila and sap beetles. Traps should be placed in the shade, under crop canopy, before crop ripens. It is left in place after harvest. There are 4 – 5 traps per farm, near wild hosts where SWD is found first. Traps are labour intensive, and should be regional. Monitor weather that affects their numbers. Larvae can be detected using a salt water or a plastic baggie test. Recognize damage, a soft or leaky fruit with skin punctures and larvae.
Order Hymenoptera, family Apidae. A wild solitary bee which is the only effective pollinator for some cucurbits, better than honey bees.
Order Coleoptera. A family of natural enemies to carrot rust fly.
A genus of entomopathogenic nematods. If food is scarce, they can undergo a short cycle with just two juvenile stages before pre-infective juvenile stage.
An entomopathogenic nematode. Used to control artichoke plume moth in artichoke, root weevil and cranberry girdler in cranberry, wood borer in ornamentals, and billbug, armyworm, cutworm, and webworm in turf. An ambusher. The infective juveniles are 66% the length of other species, with a relatively short and thick shape. The IJs can discriminate hosts, and prefer caterpillars over white grubs, over millipedes, over plastic. Has a fairly narrow host range of lepidopteran larvae on the surface of the soil. Thrives in temperate regions, with optimal temperature around mid-20?C. Unable to perist in soil of cold climates.
An entomopathogenic nematode. Used to control sciarids in mushrooms and fungus gnats in ornamentals. An intermediate host-finder. Not a specialist killer: kills dipteran, coleopteran, and lepidopteran larval hosts. Can withstand cold tempratures, and can colonize more northern climates than other EPNs. The body is C-shaped, and somewhat elongate and slender.
An entomopathogenic nematode. A cruiser.
An entomopathogenic nematode. Used to control root weevil in citrus, and mole cricket in turf.
An entomopathogenic nematode. Used to control mole cricket in turf. An ambusher.
A pest in Indonesia that was targeted by pesticide regimes in 1945.
Stemphylium leaf blight
A new disease which was detected in the Holland Marsh in 2009.
Order Coleoptera, family Carabidae. Abundance was 19.1% in 2015, and 7.3% in 2016.
Sterile insect technique (SIT)
Sterile insect release
A genetic control strategy. Birth control for insects. Introduces sterility into a wild insect population using irradiated, sterile males. Used for American serpentine leaf miner. Sterile males will not likely damage and crop, and sterility is easily and quickly introduced to populations with males. Males supply millions of sterile sperm with potential to spread fertility faster than sterile females with non-viable eggs. Separating out males critical for SIT. Males are sterilized with X-ray or ?-ray irradiator that causes germ cell damage and double-stranded breaks in chromosomes. Cobalt 60 can be used, or LINAC. The males mate but the eggs they sire are unviable. Males need to be able to compete with fertile males. Leave behind no pesticide residues. Sterilized insects do not emit radiation. Can supplement other controls. Compatible with biocontrol programs. Specific to target species, with no adverse effect to beneficial insects including pollinators. Requires repeated release, and efficacy increases with each release. Target pests do not develop resistance. Sterile insects can be mass produced at a cost of a few cents each. A potential control strategy for pepper weevil; challenge is in rearing pepper weevil. Used in codling moth in BC. Experiments done during development: laboratory culture of the pest; dosimetry and irradiation set-up studies; dosage studies to sterilize males, including adult emergence and reciprocal crosses to verify non-viability of progeny; determination of fitness of males, retaining competitive behaviours allowing for mating to occur, such as flight and mate seeking.
Order Hymenoptera, family Aphidae, tribe Meliponini. A non-Apis bee. Managed in South America, but not present in North America or Europe. Live in small hives made of mud, with honey stored in pots. Colonies can have hundreds to thousands of workers. There can be more than one active queen at a time. Research is limited to individual lab groups, usually focused on managment of specific species.
A method of control of tarnished plant bug in alfalfa which does not result in bugs moving into higher value crops. Instead it moves into the uncut strip. Reduces the amount of insecticide used to control the pest, and allows natural enemy communities to build up.
Striped cucumber beetle
Order Coleoptera, family Chrysomelidae. It is attracted by the kairomone cucurbitacin.
A challenge in implementing IPM in developing countries. Many farmers in developing countries require subsidies to survive, including for seed, equipment, and fertilizers. Sometimes subsidies are conditional on the farmer doing something. The government heavily subsidizes the use of pesticides, and use can sometimes be conditional for credit availability and international aid including from the UN. Pesticides can sometimes be part of air packages from developed countries. This discourages innovation and reseach into alternative methods, and encourages over-spraying due to the low cost. There is still a “silver bullet” mentality.
When muck soils are drained, organic matter is exposed to oxygen and begins to oxidize. Eventually all organic soils disappear. Muck soils need to be managed to prevent subsistence and maintain its useful life as long as possible. About 1.3 m of muck soil has been lost since 1933 to subsidence. In the 1940s, this occurred and surface clay was revealed with a paler colour.
Defined by Encyclopaedia Britannica as “Farming where nearly all crops or livestock raised are used to maintain the farmer and the farmer’s family, leaving little, if any, surplus for sale or trade”. Low technology and low input, with annual yields that are highly dependent on environmental conditions. Despite this, poverty and undernourishment are more likely to be addressed by small-scale sustainable agriculture than by industrialization, according to UN Millennium Project 2005. Yields are very low and often pest management is not worth it economically. There is little margin for error. There is a higher diversity of crops, to fill all nutritional needs; this contributes to farm structure challenges in implementing IPM.
Order Diptera, family Cecidomyiidae. Has a three-component sex pheromone that is inexpensive to produce.
Catching insects with a butterfly net. Not as structured as pan trapping. Catches larger species more easily. Less consistent for site sampling. Skill varies between workers. A different area of a site may be netted each time, to follow where flowers are blooming an bees are active.
Order Hymenoptera, family Encyrtidae. A hyperparasitoid of aphids in Hawaii. It is the main parasite of mummified aphids. Prevents parasitoids from regulating aphids. Introduction of new aphid parasitoids gave it a wider host range, making it stronger.
Works for Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Did a masters program at Simon Fraser University. Worked for CABI in Europe, as well as in Hawaii.
Tarnished plant bug
Order Hemiptera, family Miridae. A serious pest of alfalfa, cotton, fruit, and vegetables. Native to North America. Commonly controlled in alfalfa by mowing the entire field, but they move within 24 hours into high value crops such as cotton and strawberry, becoming serious pests. An alternative is strip mowing of alfalfa, and interplanting alfalfa as a trap crop in strawberry. Damage results from feeding by nymphs and adults; it injects its saliva into the plant, and can cause distorted fruits. It is multivoltine. Native parasitoids have ineffective control because they are univoltine. Can be controlled with a bug vacuum. AAFC and CABIA had a program to control it using European Braconidae parasitoids Peristenus digoneutis and P. relictus. A pest of vegetables in Austria.
An exchange student from Austria. Did work on IPM in Austria.
A plant essential oil that is a repellent, and causes reduced oviposition, even 12 cm away from fruit. It is 35% thymol, 19.5% p-cymene, and 20% ?-terpinene.
Found in thyme. It is highly repellent. Causes mortality in flies.
A pheromone used for orientation to and from the nest. Less volatile than alarm pheromones. Replenished through continuous traffic. Found in walking and flying insects, mainly hymenopterans and lepidopteran larvae.
Training and visitation
The traditional system of disseminating IPM technology to farmers in Indonesia. Did not work. Extension workers from the Ministry of Agriculture were sent to do “transfer of technology”: regular training for extension workers and contact farmers. Training for workers was once a week, and they were expected to spread training to farmers in different regions. However, they did not have formal IPM education, only training from MOA, and were not paid enough to care and often skipped work and/or had other jobs. Farmers did not put in time to meet, and were not deeply involved, with no information access and no training in decision-making.
Order Coleoptera, family Carabidae. A natural enemy of carrot rust fly.
Order Hymenoptera, family Braconidae. An important natural enemy of pepper weevil in Mexico. Potentially may be shipped to Canada as a BCA. Must be screened for specificity.
Order Hymenoptera, family Platygastridae. A parasitoid of Parabrochymena arborea and green stink bug.
Order Hymenoptera, family Platygastridae. A parasitoid of brown marmorated stink bug, Brochymena quadripustulata, green stink bug, Banasa dimidiata, Euschistus servus, E. trististigmus, and spined soldier bug.
Order Hymenoptera, family Platygastridae. A parasitoid of brown marmorated stink bug. Not a specific predator, and may attack beneficial stink bugs. Found in the USA. May have been introduced with BMSB, in egg masses.
Order Hymenoptera, family Platygastridae. A parasitoid of brown marmorated stink bug, Brochymena quadripustulata, and Euschistus tristigmus.
The MCRS is on Twitter: @MuckIPM. Tweets disease alerts for onion downy mildew, stemphylium leaf blight, carrot rust fly generational peak, and degree day thresholds.
Two-spotted spider mite
Class Arachnida. A beneficial predator that is harmed by pyrethroid insecticides, leading to pest resurgences.
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU)
A university in Vienna, Austria. Founded in 1872. A higher education institution for agriculture, forestry, landscape architecture, and food sciences. Gained university status in 1975. “Works with things growing in the ground”.
When there is a new pest, and early stages of a biological control program. Baseline data on parasitism by different agents. Host-parasitoid associations must be characterized.
Order Hymenoptera, family Braconidae. An important natural enemy of pepper weevil in Mexico. Potentially may be shipped to Canada as a BCA. Must be screened for specificity.
Order Coleoptera, family Coccinellidae. Introduced to the USA from Australia in 1888 for control of cottony cushion scale. Credited with saving the California citrus industry.
A fruit fly which likes fermenting products. Includes spotted wing drosophila. It eats the yeast which grows in the vinegar in fruits, not the vinegar.
Growing grapes for wine production.
A problem faced in developing countries. In some places even drinking water is hard to find, let alone irrigation water. Farmers rely on precipitation. Example: dry season in Malawi, villars rely on government wells.
Order Lepidoptera, family Erebidae. A pest of turf. Can be controlled with Steinernema carpocapsae.
M.Sc. Did work on immersion baths.
Western corn rootworm (WCR)
Diabrotica virgifera virgifera
Order Coleoptera, family Chrysomelidae. A pest of corn in Austria. Invasive to Europe, arriving in Serbia in 1992 during a war. Has been in Austria since 2002, where it was a quarantined pest until 2014, when it became impossible to eradicate. The most important pest in Europe. Monitored with pheromone traps. Controlled with crop rotation and supporting plant growth with fertilization and irrigation. No seed treatments are registered. Chemical controls target adults. BCAs include Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and potentially entomopathogenic fungi. Choose cultivars bred for resistance, or with strong root growth.
Western flower thrip
Order Thysanoptera, family Thripidae. A highly destructive greenhouse pest. May be controlled in all life stages with hot water immersion baths. Eggs are not controlled by horticultural oil immersion baths. Adults can be controlled with insecticidal soap immersion baths. A problem in chrysanthemums. Often brought into Canada on plant cuttings from USA. Eggs take 96 hours to hatch. A pest of vegetables in Austria.
Western Interior Basin (WIB)
A region of Canada that is rich in bee species, in BC.
Wheat ground beetle
Order Coleoptera, family Carabidae. A pest of cereals except oats in Austria. Found only in Europe and the Middle East. An occasional pest. Lives underground in tunnels where it is protected from contact poisons. Larvae feed on young plants, fraying leaves, pulling leaf tips into tunnels, and forming clusters. First damage occurs in the fall with first larval instars. The second larval instar overwinters, and causes more damage in the spring. Can be controlled with crop rotation and stomach poisons. The action threshold in winter wheat in the fall is 4 – 5 damaged plants/m2, and in the spring 8 – 10 damaged plants/m2.
Order Coleoptera. Has sieve plates over the spiracles to prevent infection of entomopathogenic nematodes.
Order Coleoptera, family Elateridae. A pest of corn and potatoes in Austria.
Order Coleoptera. A pest of ornamentals. Can be controlled with Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.