Kaplan Book: Chapters 5 & 6
Uniform Distribution
Individuals in a population are equally spaced apart. EX: Crops
Clustered Distibution
Individuals in a population gather in uneqally spaced groups. EX: Penguins
Random Distribution
Indiviuals in a population are spaced with no pattern. EX: Windblown seeds
Direct Count Method
Counting all the individuals in a population
Quadrat Method
Constructing a grip of simple squares and counting indiviuals in a population within these squares.
Capture-Recapture Method
Over a period of time, periodically capture and count individuals in a population and than release them, marking the ones you capture first.
Population Growth
The rate at which a population grows. It follows a logistic growth because limiting factors prevent it from growing without end.
Density Dependent Factors
Limiting factors that become worse as the population grows.
Density Independent Factors
Limiting factors that are unaffeced by the population’s size.
K
An estimate of the carrying capacity of a population.
r-strategists
Species who have high birth rates, several offspring and short life spans.
K-strategists
Species who have low birth rates, few offsprings and long life spans.
Type I survivors
Species with long life spans, with the majority of the deaths occuring in the elderly. EX: Tigers
Type II survivors
Species that have a constant death rate across all ages. EX: Hawks
Type III survivors
Species that have high death rates among the young. EX: Butterflies
ARPC
The rate at which a population changes. Calculated by the equation: [birth rate – death rate]/10
Zero Population Growth
When the birth and death rates are equal, the population doesn’t grow at all.
Negative Population Growth
When the ARPC is negative,due to the death rate being higher than the birth rate, the population begins to decrease.
Rule of 70
The formula to determine doubling time. Calculated by the function: 70/ARPC
Emigration
Leaving a country. Lowers that countries population size.
Immigration
Moving to a country. Increases that countries population size.
Industrialized countries
Known as First World countries. EX: USA, Canada, Germany, Japan
More Developep Countries (MDC)
Known as the Second World countries. EX: China, Russia
Less Developed Countries (LDC)
Known as the Third World countries. EX: India, African countries
Replacement-level Fertility
The number of children a woman must bear to replace a set of parents. This can show how large a population is and how it is growing as a country with a higher rate would have a higher population size.
Factors that affect birth and fertility rates
Infant mortality, marriage age, education, affluence, child labor, opportunities for women, availabilityof birth control and religious/cultural beliefs
Declining Death Rate Factors
Nutrition, sanitation, water, hygeine, medicine and public health
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The number of babies out of every 1000 born each year. Tends to be higher in LDC’s than in a MDC or industrialized country.
Pre-Industrial
The first stage of the demographic transition model. Typically includes high birth and death rates and a low growth rate.
Transitional
The second stage of the demographic transition model. Typically includes high birth and growth rates and a low death rate.
Industrial
The third stage of the demographic transition model. The birth and growth rate begins to drop down.
Post-Industrial
The final stage of the demographic transition model. Birth rate continues to decline until it is below the death rate, leading to a decrease in the growth rate.
Pronatalist policies
Policies that encourage birth and large family sizes. EX: Romania
Antinatalist Policies
A policy that discourages births and encourages small families. EX: China
Malnutrition
Too little consumption of specific nutrients.
Undernutrition
Chronic consumption of too few calories per day
Causes of Hunger
Poverty, feeding domestic animals and the growing of cash crops.
Sustainable agriculture
Agriculture that attempts to reduce land disruption through not clearing the field entirely, making sure the land is not compltely bare and planting diverse crops.
Green Revolution
A attempt to increase food productivity and relieve hunger. One result was the devlopment of new varieties of wheat that were more resistant to pests and disease.
Advantages of biogenetic engineering
Increase resistance to insects, alter oil content and control the pollon levels in crops.
Disadvantages of biogenetic engineering
Seeds from the crops may disrupt the ecological balance and pests could develop immunity to the crops resistance.
Deforestation
The clearing of forests. Leads to more carbon dioxide in the air, disrupts the water cycle and decreases biodiversity.
Pesticides
Chemicals used to kill insects and other pests. Can lead to resistance in insects.
Tree farms
An area where only one type of tree is planted and cared for, reducing the need to cut down forests. However, it also reduces biodiversity since there is only one type of tree.
Jack pine
A tree which requires fire to germinate it’s seeds. As a result, it is a practice to purposely set fire to it.
Limits on Timber Companies
Ban timber cutting in national forests, eliminate new roads through national forests and not supplementing government budgets with timber sales.
Rangeland
An unmanaged area of land that supplies vegetaton for animals to eat. Contains mostly grass and shrubs, unlike a forest, which contains mainly trees.
Continuous grazing
Year long grazing in a particular area. It requires little fencing, but the grasses become used up faster.
Deferred grazing
Moving livestock between two grazing areas. It allows gras to recover from grazing, but is more costly than continuous grazing.
Advantages of Surface Mining
Cheaper, faster and safer than deep mining
Disadvantages of Surface Mining
Destroys natural habitats and the landscape
Advantages of Deep Mining
Doesn’t destroy the landscape as much as surface mining and allows minerals to be taken out from deeper underground
Disadvantages of Deep Mining
Dangerous to miners and is much more costly than surface mining
Overburden
The vegetation, soil and rocks lying over a mineral deposit.
Tailings
Piles of discarded rocks.
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977
Requires mining companies to replant vegetation on land that was strip-mined.
Advantages of Aquaculture
Allows for sustainable harvesting of fish and shellfish can also be raised to clean local waters.
Disadvantages of Aquaculture
The farm fish may invade native habitats and the fish may become crowded in the fish farm, leading to disease and waste.
Wise use philosophy
Resources on public land should be used for economic purposes.
Strict conservationist philosophy
Public land shoule be protected from commercial ventures.
Endangered Species Act
Athorizes government agencies to identify and list endangered and threatened species. By law, tese species cannot be killed, hunted or injured in the United States
Urban Sprawl
A spread-out type of development (low population density) where cars are required to travel practically everywhere. It can be increased by cheap gasoline prices, abundent land or good highway systems.
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