Lecture 2
Gene Locus
the location a gene occupies on a chromosome
Alleles
different forms of the same gene that occupy the same locus on a pair of chromosomes
Homozygous
both alleles on a pair of chromosomes at a certain locus are identical
Heterozygous
the two alleles occurring at the same locus on a pair of chromosomes are different
Gene flow
the exchange of genes between populations due to emigration and immigration
Genotype
the type of genetic information carried by on individual
Phenotype
the observable expression of the genotype of an individual
Dominate allele
an allele that expresses its phenotypic effect even when heterozygous with a recessive allele
Recessive allele
an allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when it’s paired allele is identical
Co-dominate allele
a condition in which the alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed there by resulting in offspring with a phenotype that is neither dominate nor recessive
Gene frequencies
the proportion of the different alleles of a gene present in a population
Genetic swamping
the extinction of a smaller population by being genetically absorbed by a larger population
Gene pool
the sum total of genes in the reproduction gametes of a population
Phenotypic plasticity
the ability of a genotype to give rise to a range of phenotypic expression depending on environmental conditions
Adaption
a genetically determined characteristic that enhances the ability of an organism to cope with its environment
Adaptability
capacity for evolutionary change due to genetic variability with in a population
Evolution
a change in the frequency of alleles in a gene pool
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