Lithosphere
1.Igneous Rock
Rock that forms from hardened lava

 

Ex. Obsidian, Pumice

2. Sedimentary Rock
Rocks that form from sediment being put under pressure

 

Ex. Limestone, Sandstone

3. Metamorphic Rock
A rock that has been put under

heat and pressure

 

Ex. Gneiss, Schist

4. Rock Cycle
The CIRCLE OF LIIIIIIIFEEE, but having to do with rocks.

 

Ex. the formation of rocks

5. Erosion
The removal of a sediment from a rock structure by water of wind means.
6. Weathering
Same as erosion

 

Ex. Look above

7.Soil Horizons
layers of soil

 

Always start at topsoil

 

Always end at bedrock

8. Continental Drift
The reason why our continents look the way they do.

 

This is still going on in present day

9.Theory of Tectonic plates
Explains how volcanoes form, how island form, and why we get earthquakes

 

This is one of the most useful and important theories in science

10. Abraham Ortielius
first person to believe of there being a super continent such as pangaea

 

Creator of first modern atlas

11. Arthur Holmes
Pioneered use of radiactive dating of rocks

 

First Scientist to grasp mantle convection

12. Alfred Wegner
Originator of continental drift theory

 

theory was controversial up until the 50’s when it was then accepted

13. Gondwanaland
The southern portion of the supercontinent pangaea

;

This was formed from our present day continents

14. Laurasia
The northern part of Pangaea

;

Formed of, you guessed it, asia and north america

15. Harry Hess
One of the founding fathers of the theory of tectonic plates

;

Best known for explaining the seafloor spreading

16. Pangaea
Supercontinent that existed in paleozoic era

;

made up of our 7 present day continents.

17. Sea Floor Spreading
the process in which islands are made by ocean volcano eruptions
18. Divergent Plates
tectonic plates that move away from eachother

;

form trenches

19. convergent plates
tectonic plates that collide together

;

create earthquakes

20. transform plates
tectonic plates that shift by their sides

;

create ridges

21. Cindercone volcano
volcanoes made of their own debris

;

this includes volcanic ash, cinders, ect.

;

cone shaped (WARNING! NOT FOR ICECREAM!!!)

22. composite cone volcano
volcano in the shape of a cone

;

formed by layers of hardened lava, ash, pumice, and tethra.

23. Shield volcano
built almost entirely of fluid lava

;

resembles a shield lying on the ground

24. Volcanic effects on lithosphere
it can go both ways.

;

it can burn down the trees and affect the wildlife around it

;

but also deposit those remains into the soil, causing it to be fertilized.

25. layers of the earth
the four parts of the earths interior that keeps it the way it is

;

they include the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core

26. isostasy
the equilibrium that exists between parts of the mantle

;

pretty much keeps them at a small distance

27. Faults
a crack in the earths crust

;

think of a crack in your screen or a cut in your skin. it kinda resembles that

28. seismic waves
waves of energy that travel through the earths layers

;

can be a result of an earthquake, explosion, or volcano

29. focus and epicenter
epicenter is the part in the crust above the impact point in the mantle

;

kinda like pinpointing where it happened and where it will impact most severely

30. tsunami
a huge wave caused by the displacement of water

;

there was a HUUUUGE tsunami over at japan some years ago.

;

this is the stuff you do NOT want to mess with. AT ALL.

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