used in place of total numbers of births each year, it is the number of births per 1,000 people in a populaion in a given year. it is taken midpoint,
same concept but with dead.
calculated by subtracting the # of people leaving a population from the # of people coming in through a certain amount of time.
Drawbacks: Not enought musle gain.
Populations grow or decline through interplay with births, deaths, and migration.
the number of children born to a woman during her lifetime. Two types of fertility rates affect a nation’s populations size and growth rate. replacement-level fertility rate and total fertility rate(TFR) Based on the graph (p.128) the total fertility rate is higher in less-developed, then world, then least in more-developed countries. World’s TFR is 2.5 but needs to be 2.1 to halt populaiton growth.
replacement-level fertility rate
the average number of children that couples ina population must bear to replace themselves. This higher is less developed countries than more developed due to children dying before reaching reproductive years.
total fertility rate (TFR)
the average number of children born to women in a population during their reproductive years. Plays key role in determining population size.
Factors Affecting Birth Rates
-importance of children as a part of the labor force (esp. less developed, makes sense for them to have more children to help with neccessary work)
-cost of raising and educating children( rate lower in more developed because raising children is more costly and do not start work until later in life)
-availability of or lack of pension (pensions reduce need for couple’s to have more children to help support them later in life)
-infant deaths (more in poorer countries so must have more kids to inusre some survival)
– Urbanization (urban areas better access to family planning services so fewer kids)
– educational and employment opportunities available for women** (rates lower when women have access to education and paid employment outside home, better educated tend to marry later and have less kids)
– average age at marriage (later marriage=later first child=not as many)
– availability of legal abortions and birth control methods (more availability =less birth rate, allows womesn to control # they have)
– religious beliefs, traditions, and cultural norms (some favor large families, oppose abortion and birth control)