Mid Term Review
CFC’s
(chlorofluorocarbons) thins the ozone layer and contains chlorine, fluorine, and carbon
Meteorology
the scientific study of the atmosphere and atmospheric phenomena; the study of weather and climate
radiation
transfer of energy in the form of waves
Greenhouse Effect

trapping of the sun’s energy the Earth in the lower atmosphere

caused by the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) and adds c02 into the air

warming effect may melt glacier and raise sea levels

Isotherms
lines on a map that connect places that have the same temperature
Troposphere

 layer of the atmosphere closes to the Earth

 where weather happens

temperature decreases

Stratosphere

  second layer of the atmosphere

 where airplanes fly; where the ozone layer is temperate remains constant to height of 20 kilometers

Mesosphere

third layer of the atmosphere

where meteors burn up

temperature decreases

Thermosphere

outmost layer of the atmosphere

 where auroras happen

  temperature increases

Describe a windward coast and a leeward coast

 A windward coast will experience the full moderating influence of the ocean and cool summers and mild winters. A leeward coast will have a more continental temperature pattern because winds don’t have to carry th ocean’s influence onshore

Describe land and water heating and cooling patterns

Land heats more rapidly and to higher temperature than water. Land also cools more rapidly and to lower temperatures than water.

What is an Air pollutant

What accounts for nearly half of all air pollution

airborne particles ad gases that occur in concentrations large enough to endanger the environment

 

emissions from transportation vehicles account for nearly half of the primary pollutant

What gas is most abundant in the Atmosphere

What gas is second most abundant in the Atmosphere

What other gasses are in the Atmosphere

Nitrogen (N) – 78%

 

Oxygen (O) -21%

 

H2O vapor, Carbon Dioxide (CO2), and Argon (A)

Relative Humidity

What is the equation for finding it

the % of moisture the air can hold relative to the amount it can hold at a certain temperature

 

(specific humidity/ capacity or saturated) times 100

Evaporation
from liquid H2O to H2O vapor and absorbs heat
Precipitation

water that falls from the atmosphere to the earth

 

occurs when cloud droplets grow into heavy enough drops to fall to Earth

Acid Precipitation

 acid drops that fall to the ground

contains nitrate and sulfate that comes from burning fuels, volcanoes, and cars

 

Dew Point

the temperature at which water vapor condenses

 

dew, clouds, and fog forms

 

if dew point is below freezing, frost forms

Cirrus

thin, feathery, made of ice crystals

 

forms at high altitude

 

seen when weather is fair but can mean rain or snow

 

“curl of hair”

Stratus

low sheet or layers; grey and smooth

 

blocks out the sun

 

associated with rain and drizzle

Cummulus

piled in thick, puffy masses

 

usually means fair weather

 

“a pile”

Cummulonimbus

large cloud that produces lightning, thunder, heavy showers

 

Thunderstorms

Rain drops
larger than fine dropped drizzle, .6 to 5 mm in diameter
Sleet
pellets of ice that falls to the ground when raindrops fall through freezing air
Snow
falls in clumps of six sided crystals
Hail
forming in cumulonimbus clouds and irregular balls or clumps
Coriolis Effect

deflection of winds and ocean currents caused by the Earth’s rotation

;

winds in N. Hemisphere flow to the right

winds in S. Hemisphere flow to the left

Anemometer
instrument that measures wind speed
Isobars

lines that in points on a map having the same air pressures

;

falling barometer- warmer weather, humid with rain and snow

rising barometer cooler weather and drizzle

El Nino

name given to periodic warming of ocean that occurs in central and eastern pacific

at irregular intervals of 3-7 years, warm counter currents become strong and replace normally cold offshore waters with warm equatorial waters

can cause extreme weather

La Nina
when surface temperatures in eastern Pacific are colder than average, a La Nina event is triggered that has a distinctive set of weather patterns
Air Pressure

pressure that the air exerts on the Earth

;

directed equally in all directions

differences in air pressure causes Earth’s winds and weather changes

air pressure is affected by temperature, water vapor, and elevation

Jet Streams

narrow belts of strong, high speed air

 

10-15 km

 

closely related to weather

Sea Breeze
flow of cool air from water to land during the day and sun’s energy heats the surface

What are Low Pressure Centers called

Describe

Low pressure centers are called “cyclones.” Pressure decreases towards center. Wind blows inward and counterclockwise in N. hemisphere. Rising air and hot is associated with cloud formation and precipitation

What are High Pressure Centers called

Describe

High pressure centers are called “anticyclones.” pressure increases toward center. Winds blow outward and clockwise in N. hemisphere. Sinking air produces clear skies
Air Mass
an immense body of air that is characterized by similar temperatures and amounts of moistures at any given altitude
Fronts
a boundary that separates two air masses when two air masses meet
Radiosonde
an instrument that is carried aloft by a balloon to send back information on atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity by means of a small radio transmitter
Saffir- Simpson Scale
measures the intensity of a hurricane from 1 to 5 with 5 at the highest
Typhoon
a tropical cyclone or hurricane of the western Pacific area and the Chinese seas
Storm Surges
a dome of water about 65 to 80 kilometers wide that sweeps across the coast where hurricane’s eye moves onto lands
What is a Maritime Polar
forms over water and likely to be humid, and forms at high latitudes towards Earth’s poles and are cold
What is a Continental Tropical
forms over land and are likely to be dry and forms at low latitudes and are warm
What is a Maritime Tropical
forms over water and likely to  be humid, and forms at low latitudes and are warm
What is a Continental Polar
forms over land and are likely to be dry and forms at high latitudes towards Earth’s poles and are cold
How are air masses classified

In an addition to their overall temperature, air masses are classified according to the surface over which they form.

 

 

Polar and tropical describe the temperature characteristics of an air mass which continental and maritime describe the moisture characteristics of the air mass

Warm Front

a warm front forms when warm air moves into an area formerly covered by cooler air

 

 

 

 

red semi circles

Cold Front

a cold front forms when cold, dense air moves into a region occupied by warmer air

 

 

 

 

blue triangles

Stationary Front

surface position of a front, when the flow of air on either side is not cold or warm, doesn’t move and a stationary front forms

 

 

 

 

red semi circles on one side and blue triangles on the other side

Occluded Front

an active cold front overtakes a warm front, an occluded front forms

 

 

 

 

Purple triangles and semi circles

Describle Pressure within Hurricanes

 

 

Describe Pressure within Tornadoes

In a Hurricane pressure starts low in small storms and gets higher up into 73 and up pressure as the storm reaches a tropical depression, tropical storm, and hurricane

 

Pressure within some tornadoes has been estimated to be as much as 10 percent lower than pressure immediately outside the storm. The low pressure within a tornado causes air near the ground to rush into a tornado from all directions

 

Plate Tectonics

 theory that helps explain the formation and movements of these plates

Lithosphere

outer shell of the Earth

 

made of crust and mantle

Asthenosphere

layer within mantle that lithosphere plates rest on

 

where convection currents are rising: new material moves to Earth’s surface, pushes older material aside, pushes mantle up, lithosphere plates move apart

 

where cooler denser currents are sinking: lithosphere plates are pulled together and a trench is formed

Convergent boundaries

place where two plates come together

Divergent boundaries

place where two lithospheric plates are moving apart

Transform Fault Boundaries

lithosphere plates are sliding past one another

Pangaea

formed 200 million years ago, all continents were connected to form a supercontinent

Fault

break or crack along which rocks more and caused by stress

Continental to Continental Convergence (Collision)
two continental plates collide, they become crumple and uplifted and form mountain ranges
Subduction Zone
forms when an ocean plate and continental plate collide, ocean plate will slide under continental plate, forms deep ocean trench
Evidence of Continental Drift

1. Continental Puzzle

 

2. Fossils

 

3. Geological

 

4. Climatic and Glacial Evidence

San Andreas Fault
a break or crack in the Earth’s crust along which movements have occurred
Describle a Normal Fault
hanging wall moves down relative to the foot wall
Describe a Reverse Fault
hanging wall moves down up to the foot wall
Tsunami

 triggered by an earthquakes, occurs where ocean floor is displaced

Epi Centers

point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus

site of most violent shaking

Seismograph

instruments that detect and measure seismic waves

Tephra

(pyroclastic material) solid fragments ejected from a volcano

ash (less than 2 mm)

lapilli (less than 64 mm)

bombs

block

 

 

Shield Volcanos

composed of quiet lava flows

form gently sloping, dome shaped mountain

basaltic (mafic) magma

largest is Mauna Loa in Hawaii

Cinder Cone Volcano

made mostly of tehpra and other rock particles

formed from explosive eruptions

not very high, narrow base with steep sides

Composite Volcano

(Stratovolcano)

built up of alternating layers of rock and lava

explosive eruptions at first with tehpra then quiet with lava

forms large cone shaped mountains

made of granitic and basaltic magma

Crater
 funnel shaped pit or depression at top of volcano
Batholiths

largest igneous intrusions

form when huge bodies of magma cools underground

cover 1000 km

Focus

point beneath the Earth’s surface the rocks break or move apart

point on fault plane where first movements occur

Sill

sheet of hardened magma that forms between and parallel to layers of rocks

Pacific Ring of Fire

major earthquake zone that forms ring around the Pacific Ocean

Name 4 Sites of Volcanic and Earthquake Activity

Mid- ocean ridge occurs where plates are moving apart and lava flows out smoothly and fluidly from cracks

Subduction zones occurs at subduction boundaries and are usually explosive and erupted material is mostly lava

Hot spots are area of volcanic activity in the middle of a lithosphere plates and Hawaiian islands are an example

The Pacific Ring of Fire is a major earthquake an volcano zone that forms ring around the Pacific Ocean

What affects lava flow

Viscosity or the substances resistance to flow and Dissolved gasses affect how slow or fast lava flows. If it is fluid like that its silent, gaseous eruptions are loud. Silica and temperature affect viscosity

How do Dissolved Gases affect Magma

Magma contains dissolved gasses that are given off and contain water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur

Magma with more gases has explosive eruptions

L Waves (Surface Waves)

make homes shake

moves slowest

move like ripples on a pond

P Waves (Primary Waves)

(used to measure)

measures quickest

moves faster

back and forth and push and pull waves

moves through solid, liquid, or gas

S Waves (Secondary Waves)

travel slowly

move side to side

travel through solid

How many stations do you need in order to determine the Epicenter
You need distance from 3 different stations in order to determine location
Luster

way a mineral shines in reflected light

Regional Metamorphism

occurs when rocks are buried deep beneath Earth’s surface and changed by increase temperature and pressure

 

covers large area

Hardness

resistance to being scratched

Contact Metamorphism

occurs when rocks are heated by contact with magma or lava

covers a small area

Streak

color of a mineral’s powder form and is usually not the same color as the mineral

Foliated Texture
mineral crystals arranged in parallel layers or bands (flatten under pressure)
Cementation

some sediments are joined together, or cemented by minerals dissolve in water

Compaction
pressure placed on sediment on sediment layers caused them to change rock
Felsic

light colored, thick and slow flowing, rick in silica, forms underground

Mafic
dark colored, very fluid and fast flowing, low in silica, forms above ground
Intrusive Rock

formed from magma deep within the Earth

cools slowly, has large crystals

coarse grained

Extrusive Rock

formed from lava at Earth’s surface

cools quickly, has small crystals

fine grained

What must all Minerals be
All minerals are inorganic, always a crystalline solid, definite chemical composition, and over 2,000 are known
How are Igneous Rocks formed

Igneous rocks are formed from magma that cools and hardens

How is Sedimentary Rock formed

Sedimentary rocks are made by mud, sand, gravel, and shells and the sediments are moved by wind and water

 Pressure is placed on it and they change and then joined together by dissolved in water

this forms layers called strata

How is Metamorphic Rock formed
formed by rocks being heated by magma or lava or buried deep beneath Earth’s surface and changed by increase temperatures and pressure
How do you find Density
Mass over volume will determine the density of a rock
What is a Conflomerate Rock

Conglomerates are a Clastic, or formed by broken pieces or fragments of rock, Sedimentary Rock

 

It is formed by rounded pebbles or clumps of clay, mud or sand carried by water

What makes Sedimentary Rock Unique

Sedimentary rocks form layers

 

 They usually are formed in water and have ripple marks or mud cracks

 Fossils are often preserved in sedimentary rocks

It is classified according to compositions, texture, or grain size

What is in the center of a Hurricane that is calm
Eye
What does light traveling faster than sound prove
Lightning before thunder
Lithosphere is made of this
Rock

Horizontal is

 

Vertical is

layers

 

piles

Crystalline solid
Minerals arranged due to atoms

What do Minerals need

 

What defines Sedimentary Rock

Carbon

 

Layers

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