Unit 1 – Ecology
habitat
– the place where an organism lives
– an area that provides an organism with its basic needs for survival
ecology
the study of interactions among organisms and their environment
symbiosis
a close and often long-term interaction between different biological species
population
organisms of one species living together in the same place at the same time
community
all of the populations in an ecosystem
predator
an organism that feeds on others – it has other organisms below it on the food chain
prey
an organism that is food for others – it has other organisms above it on the food chain
cooperation
when different individuals perform different tasks required for the survival of the entire group
producer
organisms that use an outside energy source to make energy rich molecules (food)
consumer
– an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms or their remains.
limiting factor
anything that limits the number of individuals living in a population
niche
The role a species plays within a community
mutualism
a type of symbiotic relationship that benefits both species
commensalism
a type of symbiotic relationship that benefits only one of the species
parasitism
a type of symbiotic relationship that benefits one species and harms the other
predator and prey
a relationship in which one organism eats the other for food
exponential growth
growth by doubling – “the larger the population gets, the faster it grows”
carrying capacity
the largest number of individuals of one species than an ecosystem can support over time
food chain
the simple model of a feeding relationship in an ecosystem
competition
when two or more organisms need the same resource at the same time – it is highest between members of the same species
biosphere
– the zone of life on Earth
– the top portion of the Earth’s crust, all the water that covers Earth’s surface, and the surrounding atmosphere
herbivores
plant eaters such as deer and rabbits
ominivores
organisms that eat both plants and animals
carnivores
meat eaters such as tigers and frogs
ecosystem
consists of all the organisms living in an area and the nonliving features of the environment
biology
the scientific study of LIFE.
biome
a large area or geographical region with distinct plant and animal groups adapted to that environment
competition
when individuals or groups of organisms compete for similar resources such as territory, mates, water and food.
decomposer
an organism that obtains nutrients by consuming dead and decaying organic matter.
carnivores
meat eaters – at or near the top of the food chain
herbivores
plant eaters – the second step of the food chain, just above producers
producers
plants or algae – the first step in a food chain
food web
a way of showing all possible feeding relationships in a community
10% of energy
the amount of energy that gets transfered to each level of an energy pyramid
food chain
a simple model that shows feeding relationships in an ecosystem.
ex. plant is eaten by mouse, mouse is eaten by snake, snake is eaten by hawk
food pyramid
a model of feeding relationships that shows that organisms lower on the food chain occur in higher numbers than those at the top
Leave a Reply
Your email address will not be published.
*
*

BACK TO TOP