Wildlife capstone Final
How many avian species inhabit the united states, and how many are endangered or threatened?
Over 800 live here, with 67 being endangered or threatened
Why are surveys needed?
To ensure the persistence of endangered birds, and to manage common birds so they do not become threatened.
What do the 40 trends for bird surveys show?
Hawaiian, ocean, grassland, and forest birds declining.
Wetland, wintering coastal birds, and waterfowl increasing due to wetland management
How many of the birds listed as endangered occur in hawaii, and how many have gone extinct there?
Over 1/3, and 71
What percent of birds restricted to the ocean are declining?
39%
What is harming grassland birds?
Intensification of agriculture
What is harming aridland birds?
Unplanned urban development, energy development and exploration
What is harming forest birds?
Unplanned urban development, unsustainable logginng, invasive species
What has been beneficial to wetland birds?
North American Waterfowl Management Plan
What is peak breeding season for birds in southeast ohio?
First week of june
How can roads be mitigated mitigated for reptiles?
Seasonal road closures and wide underpasses in low points along roads.
What is the most effective way to sample rare or secretive amphibians or reptiles?
Passive traps
What are examples of passive traps?
Funnel traps, drift fences,pitfall traps
What produces the best assessment of the amphibian and reptile communities?
A combination of funnel traps and large pitfalls
What is capture rate a function of?
The density of animals in the sample area, and the activity level of those animals
What is the difference between active and passive traps?
Active traps concentrate animals to make them easier to capture, passive captures animals.
What is harming Hawaiian birds?
Invasive plants and exotic predators
What is harming seabirds?
Pollution, over fishing, warming sea temperatures
What materials should be used for coverboards?
Wooden for amphibians, metal for reptiles
What is an active trap that works well on gray treefrogs?
Pvc pipes placed vertically.
What active traps are effective on salamanders?
Leaf litter bags
What active traps are effective on frogs and toads?
artificial pools
What is an advantage of active traps over passive?
They can be monitored less frequently
What is an example of a time-constrained survey?
Nocturnal stream surveying timed dipnet surveys of five minutes
What are capture methods that work on lizards?
Sherman live traps
Pitfall traps
Tube traps
Burlap bands on tree trunks
Squirt guns
Rubber bands
What capture methods work on turtles?
Bal chatri traps placed on basking sites
Fyke and trammel nets
Floating basking traps
Floating pitfall traps
Baited funnel traps
Leglerâ„¢ hoop traps
What influence bird survey data?
How visible/audible a species is, age and gender differences in species, reproductive strategy, Habitat, Time of day, Environmental noise, Observer
How many camera sites where in the Kelly and Hulub study?
15
How did Kelly and holub attract animals in front of their cameras?
Using natural funnels that forced animals between 3 and 4 meters away from the cameras
What kinds of cameras did kelly and holub use?
Active: Infrared tripwire
Passive: Heat/motion detector
How many trap nights did kelly and holub have?
891
What advantage did kelly and holub state that digital cameras had over film?
More accurate, more memory
what disadvantage did kelly and holub state digital cameras had?
worse resolution, higher price
In kelly and holub, what were bobcats found to avoid?
Roads
What are methods for sex determination in mammals?
Body size, antler/horns, color pattern, sexual organs
What Cervidae is an exception to the antler sex determination?
Caribou
What are methods of age determination in mammals?
Teeth, reproductive organs
What are measurements that are recorded for mammals?
Total length, tail length, hind foot length, ear length, ear length, tragus length(Bats), forearm length(bats)
What is species composition?
List of species captured.
What are total captures?
Total mammals, total by species
What is density?
Numbers of individuals per unit area trapped?
What is area?
traps sample an area equal to half the distance of consecutive trap spacing
How many squared feet per acre?
43,560
What is the formula to get area?
(Length x width) x width
What is species diversity?
Combination of species richness and species evenness
Which covers more habitat types? Lines or grids?
Lines
What are unique aspects of furbearer management?
Economics = pelts and carcasses can be sold.
Biological = furbearer biologists have expertise in a broad area of wildlife and ecology.
Bio-political = many furbearers cause conflict within wildlife management community.
Relatively new = slow development as a discipline in the wildlife profession.
What are population sampling techniques for furbearers?
Aerial surveys
Road kill surveys
Scent station surveys
Spotlight surveys
Public observations
Mark-recapture
Bow hunter observations
How are beavers surveyed?
Helicopter surveys counting beaver lodges per square mile
What is are road kill surveys?
50 40-mile routes driven 3 times monthly
March and April
12,000 mi
What are ways of estimating harvest?
Pelt registration, trader transaction reports, furtaker reports
How many pelts are harvested a year in north america?
25 million
How many species are furbearers?
27
What are threats to furbearer populations?
Animal rights organizations
Habitat loss
Public intolerance
Disease
What are types of traps?
Footholds
Long springs
Jump traps
Coil springs
Conibears (body gripping traps)
Live traps (cage traps)
Colony traps (muskrat)
Snares
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